The objective of this study was to comprehensively evaluate inclusive out-of-school time physical activity programs for children/youth with physical disabilities. A search of the published literature was conducted and augmented by international expertise. A quality appraisal was conducted; only studies with quality ratings ≥60% informed our best practice recommendations. Seventeen studies were included using qualitative (n = 9), quantitative (n = 5), or mixed (n = 3) designs. Programs had a diversity of age groups, group sizes, and durations. Most programs were recreational level, involving both genders. Rehabilitation staff were the most common leaders. Outcomes focused on social skills/relationships, physical skill development, and psychological well-being, with overall positive effects shown in these areas. The best practice recommendations are consistent with an abilities-based approach emphasizing common group goals and interests; cooperative activities; mastery-oriented, individualized instruction; and developmentally appropriate, challenging activities. Results indicate that inclusive out-of-school time physical activity programs are important for positive psychosocial and physical skill development of children/youth with physical disabilities.
Kelly P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Viviane Grassmann, Krystn Orr, Amy C. McPherson, Guy E. Faulkner, and F. Virginia Wright
Wesley J. Wilson
Shaunna M. Burke, Jennifer Brunet, Amanda Wurz, Christina Butler, and Andrea Utley
The benefits of informal physical activity during recovery from childhood cancer have rarely been investigated. This study adopted a multiple case study approach to explore the impact of recreational cycling on childhood cancer survivors’ experiences of well- and ill-being. Three semistructured interviews were conducted over a 3-month period with four survivors to explore their experiences of physical, psychological, and social well- and ill-being. Within-case analysis followed by cross-case analysis identified three themes that captured their well- and ill-being experiences with recreational cycling and cancer: (a) cultivating feelings and emotions, (b) experiencing physical changes, and (c) encountering positive and negative social interactions. The results from this study show that recreational cycling may be a useful adjunct to conventional treatments for the self-management of multiple domains of well- and ill-being during recovery from childhood cancer.
ZáNean McClain, E. Andrew Pitchford, E. Kipling Webster, Daniel W. Tindall, and Seo Hee Lee
Annemarie M.H. de Witte, Monique A.M. Berger, Marco J.M. Hoozemans, Dirkjan H.E.J. Veeger, and Lucas H.V. van der Woude
The aim of this study was to determine to what extent mobility performance is influenced by offensive or defensive situations and ball possession and to what extent these actions are different for the field positions. From video analysis, the relative duration of the various wheelchair movements during team offense/defense and individual ball possession was compared in 56 elite wheelchair basketball players. A two-way analysis of variance indicated that during offense, the guards and forwards performed longer driving forward than during defense. Overall, centers stood still longer during offense than during defense. Without ball, centers performed driving forward longer than with ball possession. It is concluded that offense, defense, and ball possession influenced mobility performance for the different field positions. These differences can be used to design specific training protocols. Furthermore, field positions require potentially different specific wheelchair configurations to improve performance.
Hyokju Maeng, E. Kipling Webster, E. Andrew Pitchford, and Dale A. Ulrich
The purpose of this study was to examine the inter- and intrarater reliabilities of the Test of Gross Motor Development—third edition (TGMD-3). The TGMD-3 was administered to 10 typically developing children. Five raters with experience using the Test of Gross Motor Development—second edition (TGMD-2) scored the digitally recorded performances and then rescored the same performances after a period of 2 weeks. Intraclass correlation (ICC) was used to examine both inter- and intrarater reliabilities of scores. Interrater reliability for the total score, locomotor subscale, and ball skills subscale (ICC: 0.92–0.96) were all excellent, while individual skills (ICC: 0.51–0.93) had fair-to-excellent reliability. Intrarater reliability across all raters was also excellent (ICC: 0.77–0.98) but varied widely for individual raters (ICC: 0.28–1.00) including multiple examples of poor reliability. While raters experienced with the TGMD-2 can produce consistent scores for TGMD-3 total scale and subscales, additional training is needed to improve skill-specific reliability.
Mário A.M. Simim, Marco Túlio de Mello, Bruno V.C. Silva, Dayane F. Rodrigues, João Paulo P. Rosa, Bruno Pena Couto, and Andressa da Silva
The aim of this review was to identify the main variables for load monitoring in training and competition situations in wheelchair sports. Studies were identified from a systematic search of three databases (PubMed, Web of Science, and SportDiscuss), with search phrases constructed from MeSH terms, alone or in combination, limited to English-language literature, and published up to January 2016. Our main findings were that variables related to external load (distance, speed, and duration) are used to monitor load in competition. In training situations, researchers have used variables related to internal load (heart rate and VO2); in both training and competition situations, researchers used internal load measurements (training impulse and ratings of perceived exertion). We conclude that the main variables for load monitoring in competitive situations were distance, speed, and duration, whereas the variables for training situations were heart rate, VO2, training impulse, and ratings of perceived exertion.
Alice M. Buchanan, Benjamin Miedema, and Georgia C. Frey
The purpose of this study was to investigate parent perceptions of the physical activity (PA) engagement of their adult children with autism spectrum disorders. The theoretical framework used in this study was social ecology. Participants were nine parents from families with one adult child with autism spectrum disorder whose ages ranged from 18 to 42. Using phenomenological interviews, which explored parents’ life experience and meaning making, four themes were generated: supports and advocacy for PA, engaging in PA independently, benefits of PA, and barriers to or reasons for disengaging in particular activities. Parents’ interview comments showed that intrapersonal factors, interpersonal relationships, and community factors were essential for keeping the individuals with autism spectrum disorder engaged in PA. Families and practitioners can take advantage of that by seeking PA opportunities in community settings or with other individuals.
Kwok Ng, Jorma Tynjälä, Dagmar Sigmundová, Lilly Augustine, Mariane Sentenac, Pauli Rintala, and Jo Inchley
Physical activity (PA) is an important health-promoting behavior from which adolescents with long-term illnesses or disabilities (LTID) can benefit. It is important to monitor differences across countries in adherence with PA recommendations for health. The aim of this study was to compare PA levels among 15 European countries after disaggregating data by disability. Data from pupils (mean age = 13.6 years, SD = 1.64) participating in the 2013/2014 Health Behavior in School-aged Children study were analyzed to compare adolescents without LTID, with LTID, and with LTID that affects their participation (affected LTID). Logistic regression models adjusted for age and family affluence, stratified by gender and country group with PA recommendations for health as the outcome variable. With the data pooled, 15% (n = 9,372) of adolescents reported having LTID and 4% (n = 2,566) having affected LTID. Overall, fewer boys with LTID met PA recommendations for health than boys without LTID, although it was not statistically significant either at the national levels or for girls.