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Cognitive Load and Energy Balance Knowledge in High-School Physical Education

Anqi Deng and Ang Chen

Purpose: Guided by the cognitive load theory, the purpose of this study was to determine the impacts of cognitive load and school socioeconomic status-related environmental factors on ninth-graders’ energy-balanced living knowledge gain. Methods: A stratified random sample of high-school students (N = 150) participated in this study. Data were collected on students’ knowledge gain, cognitive load, free and reduced-price meal rates, and student-to-teacher ratio. Results: The path analysis results revealed that the reasoning learning tasks had direct significant effects on students’ knowledge gain (βi-Diet and i-Exercise = 0.34, p < .01). The free and reduced-price meal rates and student-to-teacher ratio did not have significant effects on students’ knowledge gain (p > .05). Discussion: These findings advance our understanding of the role cognitive learning tasks play in enhancing student learning in the subjects of energy-balanced knowledge and healthy lifestyle.

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Constructing Health and Physical Activity Knowledge in Practice: Teachers’ and Students’ Experiences

Emine Busra Yılmaz and Deniz Hunuk

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine teacher and student experiences in physical education when taught by teachers with high health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK): How did they construct this knowledge for students and share it with students in their teaching? Method: Four teachers and 16 of their students were interviewed. Results: Three themes emerged from the data: (a) HRFK sources of teachers and students, (b) teacher- and student-constructed HRFK in the instructional setting, and (c) students’ transfer of physical activity and HRFK to their daily lives and to those around them. Conclusion: The study showed that when teachers had ample health and physical activity knowledge and transfer this knowledge to their students by designing holistic learning experiences using effective pedagogical approaches, students tended to value lifetime physical activity participation. These students were also able to influence those around them (coaches, family, and friends) to be conscious of their own health and physical activity behaviors.

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Social–Ecological Considerations in Sustaining Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs: A Follow-Up Study

Kahyun Nam, Pamela H. Kulinna, Shannon C. Mulhearn, Hyeonho Yu, Janelle M. Griffo, and Aaron J. Mason

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the perspective of school personnel regarding the impact of social–ecological factors and to identify salient ways to support school personnel in sustaining Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs. Methods: In this mixed-methods longitudinal study, stakeholders were surveyed at two points in time (n = 67) and interviewed in semistructured interviews (n = 41) using card sorting to understand the influence of social–ecological factors on Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs sustainability. Results: Across time, the perceived influence of social–ecological levels varied considerably: individual, t(78.86) = −4.22, p < .001, d = 0.52, interpersonal, t(88.20) = −2.32, p = .023, d = 0.09, organizational, t(80.56) = −2.38, p = .02, d = 0.29, and the community factor, t(83.24) = −3.05, p = .003, d = 0.30. Stakeholders rated ecological levels from greatest to least influential as individual, organizational, interpersonal, community, and policy. Themes within levels provided a deeper understanding of these influences. Conclusion: To successfully sustain Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs in schools, balanced support from all social–ecological levels may be needed.

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Achievement Emotions, Intention to Be Physically Active, and Academic Achievement in Physical Education: Gender Differences

Sebastián Fierro-Suero, Pedro Sáenz-López, José Carmona-Márquez, and Bartolomé J. Almagro

Purpose: The objective of the study was to evaluate the relationships among the achievement emotions experienced during physical education classes, the intention to be physically active, and academic achievement. Methods: The sample consisted of 764 Spanish secondary education students (348 boys and 416 girls). Results: Pride, enjoyment, and hopelessness were the main emotions to explain the intention to be physically active, whereas enjoyment and boredom were the most important emotions to explain academic achievement. Given that boys had a better emotional experience than girls, the effect of gender in the prediction was studied. It highlights the significant moderating effect of gender for enjoyment and pride in the intention to be physically active. Discussion/Conclusion: These results show the need to apply strategies focused on each emotion, taking into account the students’ gender, for those that help to improve their emotional experience during physical education classes.

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Associations of Physical Activity Enjoyment and Physical Education Enjoyment With Segmented Daily Physical Activity in Children: Exploring Tenets of the Trans-Contextual Model of Motivation

Ryan D. Burns, Yang Bai, Leslie W. Podlog, Timothy A. Brusseau, and Gregory J. Welk

Purpose: This study examined the associations between physical activity enjoyment and physical education enjoyment with segmented physical activity in children. Method: Using student-level data from the School Wellness Integration Targeting Child Health project (N = 1,986), the Youth Activity Profile (YAP) assessed physical activity before school, during physical education, recess, after school, and evening. Segmented YAP scores were regressed onto two enjoyment variables using a seemingly unrelated regression system. Results: Physical activity enjoyment and physical education enjoyment significantly associated with YAP scores during all segments, but physical education enjoyment showed stronger associations during physical education. Older students had higher physical activity before school and in the evening, and physical education enjoyment was more influential for females before school. Conclusion: This study supports tenets of the trans-contextual model of motivation. Improving both physical activity and physical education enjoyment may yield improvements in physical activity behaviors during physical education and all other day segments.

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Navigating Emotional and Structural Influences While Implementing the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Model: A Case Study

Victoria N. Shiver and Kelly L. Simonton

Utilizing elements of organizational socialization and teacher appraisals, emotions, and labor, the purpose of this study was to explore the ways in which one teacher navigated the process of incorporating the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility model. A qualitative case study approach was applied with one teacher participant, Caroline. Caroline was using the model for the first time with children in first through third grade. Data collection included critical incident reports, semistructured interviews, informal interviews, and a practitioner journal. The two themes that were developed were: (a) model development and (b) emotional appraisals and labor. Caroline struggled with the model initially but improved with practice and the use of resources and advice. She faced setbacks due to philosophical differences and marginalization of her subject, and was able to address and process her emotions through the model.

Open access

Erratum: Miller (2015)

Open access

Special Issue: Black Scholarship in Physical Education

Michael A. Hemphill and Langston Clark

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Physical Education Teacher Experiences Through the Lens of a Pandemic: Putting a Spotlight on Teacher Beliefs, Practices, Emotional Fragility, and Well-Being

Kelly L. Simonton, Todd E. Layne, Boone Brown, and Keith Loupe

Teaching physical education during the COVID-19 pandemic presented challenges, putting a spotlight on problematic school structures and teacher beliefs that influence teacher effectiveness and well-being. The purpose of this study was to capture physical education teachers’ (N = 10) experiences during the pandemic to understand perceptions of support, teaching beliefs, and emotions/reactions to the new environment. Short-term longitudinal qualitative analysis was used to collect pre/post semester interviews and critical incidence forms throughout the semester. Resulting themes included: (a) superficial versus tangible support, (b) planning for curricular changes, (c) student–teacher connections, and (d) emotional labor and uncertainty. Results provide insight about thriving versus surviving as learned from teaching during a pandemic. Teachers who displayed positive emotions, sought student connections, and exhibited stronger core beliefs, resilience, and flexibility within instructional decisions perceived more effectiveness and well-being. Findings support investigating holes in teacher belief systems and the interconnectedness between emotions and teacher effectiveness and well-being.

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Social Justice Research in Physical Education Teacher Education: Contextualized in the United States

Desmond W. Delk, Michelle Vaughn, and Samuel R. Hodge

Purpose: The primary purpose of this comprehensive literature review was to analyze the current body of social justice research in Physical Education Teacher Education conducted in the United States exclusively. As a secondary purpose, we defined social justice as articulated in the Physical Education Teacher Education literature and summarized discourse undergirding social justice principles. Method: The research design was documentary analysis with keyword searches used to identify articles from selected electronic databases over a 15-year period from 2005 through 2020. Thirteen articles met all inclusion criteria (i.e., empirical studies). These studies were retrieved, reviewed, coded, analyzed thematically, and summarized. Findings/Discussion: From this process, six major recurrent themes emerged: (a) social justice in Black context, (b) learning social justice, (c) diversified and racialized identities, (d) competencies and pedagogies, (e) viewpoints, and (f) criticality and pluralism.