Our purpose in this study was to document the criterion validity of the Fitbit Zip for measuring steps taken by youth with visual impairments (VI). A secondary purpose was to determine whether walking pace, mounting position, or relative position to the user’s mobility device impacted the criterion validity of the device. Fourteen adolescent-aged individuals (M age = 15.4; 13 male and 1 female) with VI participated in this study. Participants wore four Fitbit Zips at different mounting positions and completed two, 2-min walking trials while the lead investigator hand tallied steps. Measurement validity was analyzed using absolute percent error (APE), intraclass correlation coefficients estimated level of conformity, and paired samples t tests and Cohen’s d effect sizes assessed APE relative to mounting positions. Results supported the use of the Fitbit Zip during regular-paced walking; however, caution must be used during activities exceeding regular walking speeds, as devices consistently underestimated steps.
Justin A. Haegele, Ali S. Brian, and Donna Wolf
ZáNean McClain, Daniel W. Tindall, Byungmo Ku, Megan MacDonald, Justin Davidson, Seo Hee Lee, and E. Kipling Webster
Domingo Garcia-Villamisar, John Dattilo, and Carmen Muela
Effects of B-Active2 (Enjoy Being Physically Active by Walking Safely: A Leisure Education Program) on the risk of falls, stress, and well-being of a sample of 44 adults with ASD (ages M = 36.88; SD =7.31) were examined using a controlled experimental trial. Given the relationship between physical activity and stress reduction to individual well-being, B-Active2 was developed as a multidimensional program involving leisure education and walking designed to create an enjoyable context in which adults with ASD learn about and engage in physical activity. All participants were evaluated on balance, gait, well-being, and stress at baseline and at 1 month postintervention by a team of therapists blind to study objectives. There was a significant difference postintervention on balance, F(1, 40) = 55.63, p < .001, η2 = .58; gait, F(1, 40) = 23.58, p < .001, η 2 =.37; and well-being, F(1, 40) = 34.16, p < .001, η 2 = .47). No statistically significant effect was found for level of stress reduction, F(1, 40) = 0.27, n.s. Results of this study support the conclusion that B-Active2 is a viable leisure education program that promotes physical activity of adults with ASD and has positive effects on their well-being and risk of falls.
In the article by Bardid F., Huyben F., Deconinck F.J.A., De Martelaer K., Seghers J., & Lenoir M., “Convergent and Divergent Validity Between the KTK and MOT 4-6 Motor Tests in Early Childhood, ” in Adapted Pyhsical Activity Quarterly, 33(1), the wrong DOI was printed. The DOI for this article is http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/APAQ.2014-0228. The online version has been corrected.
Bartosz Molik, Natalia Morgulec-Adamowicz, Jolanta Marszałek, Andrzej Kosmol, Izabela Rutkowska, Alicja Jakubicka, Ewelina Kaliszewska, Robert Kozłowski, Monika Kurowska, Elwira Ploch, Pavel Mustafins, and Miguel-Ángel Gómez
The aims of the current study were (a) to analyze the differences in game performances of sitting volleyball athletes representing the different types of disabilities and (b) to assess whether the seated position vertical reach is one of the crucial factors in the game performance level of sitting volleyball athletes. One hundred male athletes from various national teams participating in the European Championships in Sitting Volleyball (2009) took part in this study. The athletes were categorized according to type of disability and the results of the vertical reach in a seated position. Thirtysix games were analyzed using the Game Performance Sheet for Sitting Volleyball. Twenty-three game performance parameters were studied. In addition, the sum and effectiveness of attacks, blocks, block services, services, ball receiving, and defensive actions were calculated. The main results indicated significant differences between athletes with minimal disability and athletes with single amputations from above the knee in the level of defensive performances and the summation of defensive actions. There was also a significant difference between athletes in relation to their vertical reach during activity and attacking actions, blocks, and ball receiving. In addition, there were strong relationships between the players’ vertical reach scores and their activity and effectiveness in sitting volleyball. In conclusion, the accuracy of the World Organization Volleyball for Disabled classification systems for sitting volleyball players was confirmed. There is a strong relationship between players’ vertical reach and their effectiveness in sitting volleyball.
Andrea Bundon, Barry S. Mason, and Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey
This paper demonstrates how a qualitative methodology can be used to gain novel insights into the demands of wheelchair racing and the impact of particular racing chair configurations on optimal sport performance via engagement with expert users (wheelchair racers, coaches, and manufacturers). We specifically explore how expert users understand how wheels, tires, and bearings impact sport performance and how they engage, implement, or reject evidence-based research pertaining to these components. We identify areas where participants perceive there to be an immediate need for more research especially pertaining to the ability to make individualized recommendations for athletes. The findings from this project speak to the value of a qualitative research design for capturing the embodied knowledge of expert users and also make suggestions for “next step” projects pertaining to wheels, tires, and bearings drawn directly from the comments of participants.
Takahiro Sato, Justin A. Haegele, and Rachel Foot
The purpose of this study was to investigate in-service physical education (PE) teachers’ experiences during online adapted physical education (APE) graduate courses. Based on andragogy theory (adult learning theory) we employed a descriptive qualitative methodology using an explanatory case study design. The participants (6 female and 3 male) were in-service PE teachers enrolled in an online graduate APE endorsement program. Data collection included journal reflection reports and face-to-face interviews. A constant comparative method was used to interpret the data. Three interrelated themes emerged from the participants’ narratives. The first theme, instructor communication, exposes the advantages and disadvantages the participants perceived regarding communication while enrolled in the online APE graduate courses. The second theme, bulletin board discussion experiences, described participants’ perceptions of the use of the bulletin board discussion forum. Lastly, the final theme, assessment experiences, described how the participants learned knowledge and skills through online courses related to assessment and evaluation.
Megan MacDonald, Samantha Ross, Laura Lee McIntyre, and Amanda Tepfer
Young children with developmental disabilities experience known deficits in salient child behaviors, such as social behaviors, communication, and aspects of daily living, behaviors that generally improve with chronological age. The purpose of this study was to examine the mediating effects of motor skills on relations of age and salient child behaviors in a group of young children with developmental disabilities, thus tapping into the potential influences of motor skills in the development of salient child behaviors. One hundred thirteen young children with developmental disabilities participated in this study. Independent mediation analysis, with gender as a moderator between the mediating and outcome variable, indicated that motor skills meditated relations between age and socialization, communication, and daily living skills in young male children with developmental disabilities, but not female participants. Findings suggest motor skill content needs to be considered in combination with other child behaviors commonly focused on in early intervention.