The purpose of this study was to investigate physical education teachers’ perceptions of implementing online physical education during the COVID-19 pandemic as well as to explore their needs with regard to support for future teaching experiences. A total of 4,302 teachers completed four open-ended questions as part of a larger survey. Deductive and inductive qualitative analysis led to three themes: (a) Teachers’ Proud Moments, (b) Help! So Many Obstacles, and (c) Future Challenges. Teachers stated many successes and challenges that they experienced through the COVID-19 pandemic. Many items specifically focused on use and access to technology, student participation, and meeting students’ needs in various ways. Results can provide guidance for how to address the essential components of physical education in the online environment. In addition, results may provide insight to those who educate, train, and prepare teachers to teach in a virtual and/or physically distanced environment.
Erin Centeio, Kevin Mercier, Alex Garn, Heather Erwin, Risto Marttinen, and John Foley
Tiago Duarte, Diane M. Culver, and Kyle Paquette
In this paper, the authors reflect on the current literature and the evolution of coach communities of practice and how the coach development area has embraced Wenger-Trayner’s social learning theory. Studies examining parasport coach development interventions, specifically those using a landscape of practice approach, are lacking. This paper is the third in a series about increasing learning capability in the wheelchair curling landscape. The authors utilized a collaborative approach to assess the learning value created through a 13-month social learning intervention. Four composite vignettes based on the coaches’ pathways and residency within the landscape were created from the data generated and analyzed using the value creation framework. The vignettes illustrate the many dimensions of learning values experienced by the coaches. This paper advances the literature surrounding social learning theory by providing examples of the novel concept of different dimensions of learning value. Applied implications are included.
Fleur Pawsey, Jennifer Hoi Ki Wong, Göran Kenttä, and Katharina Näswall
Sport coaching is a profession that is often demanding and one in which psychological burnout is problematic. Recovery from work demands is known to be important in preventing burnout, but research has paid little attention to short-term recovery for coaches. The present study therefore focused on day-to-day recovery. Specifically, the authors investigated the role of mindfulness in recovery, given previously established empirical relationships between mindfulness and recovery processes. The authors used an intensive diary study design to gather daily data from a sample of 46 sport coaches, over a period of 28 consecutive days. Multilevel modeling allowed data analysis at the intraindividual level, providing insights into daily recovery processes for individual coaches. The results showed that increases in daily mindfulness, relative to coaches’ individual mean levels, were predictive of higher levels of recovery-related variables (energy and mood) through mechanisms of reduced rumination and improved sleep. The present study highlights mindfulness as a potential path to daily recovery and the prevention of burnout among coaches. The study lays groundwork for the investigation of mindfulness training as a recovery-promoting intervention for coaches, potentially through easily accessible means, such as app-based training delivery and the incorporation of informal mindfulness practice into daily activities.
Stiliani “Ani” Chroni, Kristen Dieffenbach, and Sigurd Pettersen
The aim of the study was to explore what sport federations look for when recruiting elite athletes into coaching, and what resources are offered to retiring elite athletes transitioning to coaching careers. The authors interviewed 10 federation officials representing eight different sports, winter and summer, individual and team sports. Thematic analysis was employed and four “what recruiters look for” higher-order themes were found, including: having the whole package essential for coaching, personal attributes displayed in their time as an athlete, singular dedication to the sport, and knowing them from their time as an athlete. Three higher-order themes surrounding resources were identified, on the support provided to those going from athlete-to-coach to facilitate a stable start, professional development, and holistic wellbeing. These resources were also considered in relation to the phase at which they were offered in the transition process, such as upon hiring, early on in the career, and as ongoing ones. While a standard or universal approach to this does not appear to exist, practices and approaches were identified here that were considered within the scope of the existing research and can be used to inform future coach development work.
Hannah F. Sangan, James G. Hopker, Glen Davison, and Shaun J. McLaren
Purpose: To assess the reliability and construct validity of a self-paced, submaximal run test (SRTRPE) for monitoring aerobic fitness. The SRTRPE monitors running velocity (v), heart rate (HRex), and blood lactate concentration (B[La]), during three 3-minute stages prescribed by ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs) of 10, 13, and 17. Methods: Forty (14 female) trained endurance runners completed a treadmill graded exercise test for the determination of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), v at VO2max (vVO2max), and v at 2 mmol·L−1 (vLT1) and 4 mmol·L−1 (vLT2) B[La]. Within 7 days, participants completed the SRTRPE. Convergent validity between the SRTRPE and graded exercise test parameters was assessed through linear regression. Eleven participants completed a further 2 trials of the SRTRPE within a 72-hour period to quantify test–retest reliability. Results: There were large correlations between v at all stages of the SRTRPE and VO2max (r range = .57–.63), vVO2max (.50–.66), and vLT2 (.51–.62), with vRPE 17 displaying the strongest associations (r > .60). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC3,1) were moderate to high for parameters v (range = .76–.84), HRex (.72–.92), and %HRmax (.64–.89) at all stages of the SRTRPE. The corresponding coefficients of variation were 2.5% to 5.6%. All parameters monitored at intensity RPE 17 displayed the greatest reliability. Conclusions: The SRTRPE was shown to be a valid and reliable test for monitoring parameters associated with aerobic fitness, displaying the potential of this submaximal, time-efficient test to monitor responses to endurance training.
Andrew J.A. Hall, Cedric English, Leigh W. Jones, Tony Westbury, and Russell Martindale
Currently, little is known about how elite coaches acculturate and how they manage their acculturation environment. This study examines the acculturation experiences of elite rugby union coaches and their management of multicultural squads. Five male elite coaches participated in the research. Each of the five coaches arguably fit a “best of the best” criterion, boasting between them multiple European and U.K. domestic championships as well as multiple Super Rugby titles with similar accomplishments at the international level across 15- and seven-a-side. Inductive thematic analysis of semistructured interview data revealed two emerging themes: (a) proactively managing personal acculturation, and (b) proactively managing player acculturation. Implications for coaches managing their own acculturation experience and their respective acculturation environments are discussed.
Darla M. Castelli and Latrice Sales Mitchell
The authors explore the priorities for American physical education in the 21st century and reconsider the role of physical education teacher education. Purpose: This chapter will discuss the potential intersection of kinesiology, physical education, and public health with the assumption that their selective integration has the potential to stimulate the development of innovative pedagogical practices and new program designs. Method: A narrative summary of published works was used to support the rationale for reciprocal selective integration to increase the impact of physical education, kinesiology, and public health efforts to enhance health and well-being. Results: The practices and programs should be specialized and pedagogically focused to advance integrative, community-based approaches designed to achieve the national physical education standards and improve health and well-being. These new approaches are timely and essential in schools and communities, especially those where children and families experience adversity. Discussion/Conclusion: There are many ways in which selective integration can transpire. A redesign of physical education teacher education is warranted and timely.
ZáNean McClain, Jill Pawlowski, and Daniel W. Tindall
Annemiek J. Roete, Marije T. Elferink-Gemser, Ruby T.A. Otter, Inge K. Stoter, and Robert P. Lamberts
Purpose: The aim of this brief review was to present an overview of noninvasive markers in trained to professional endurance athletes that can reflect a state of functional overreaching. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in the PubMed, Scopus, and PsycINFO databases. After screening 380 articles, 12 research papers were included for the systematic review. Results: Good consensus was found between the different papers in which noninvasive parameters were able to reflect a state of functional overreaching. Changes in power output (PO), heart rate (HR; [sub]maximal and HR recovery), rating of perceived exertion, and scores in the Daily Analysis of Life Demands for Athletes (DALDA) and/or Profile of Mood States (POMS) were shown to be able to reflect functional overreaching, whereas changes in maximal oxygen uptake and HR-variability parameters were not. Conclusion: Functional overreaching within a maximal performance test was characterized by a decrease in peak PO and a lower maximum HR, whereas a lower mean PO and a lower HR were observed during time trials. Changes in parameters during a standardized submaximal test when functionally overreached were characterized by a higher PO at a fixed HR or a lower HR at a fixed intensity, higher rating of perceived exertion, and a faster HR recovery. Although both the DALDA and POMS were able to reflect functional overreaching, the POMS was not able to differentiate this response from acute fatigue, which makes it unsuitable for accurately monitoring functional overreaching.
Michelle T. Barrack, Marta D. Van Loan, Mitchell Rauh, and Jeanne F. Nichols
This prospective study evaluated the 3-year change in menstrual function and bone mass among 40 female adolescent endurance runners (age 15.9 ± 1.0 years) according to baseline disordered eating status. Three years after initial data collection, runners underwent follow-up measures including the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire and a survey evaluating menstrual function, running training, injury history, and prior sports participation. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral density and body composition. Runners with a weight concern, shape concern, or global score ≥4.0 or reporting >1 pathologic behavior in the past 28 days were classified with disordered eating. Compared with runners with normal Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire scores at baseline, runners with disordered eating at baseline reported fewer menstrual cycles/year (6.4 ± 4.5 vs. 10.5 ± 2.8, p = .005), more years of amenorrhea (1.6 ± 1.4 vs. 0.3 ± 0.5, p = .03), and a higher proportion of menstrual irregularity (75.0% vs. 31.3%, p = .02) and failed to increase lumbar spine or total hip bone mineral density at the 3-year follow-up. In a multivariate model including body mass index and menstrual cycles in the past year at baseline, baseline shape concern score (B = −0.57, p value = .001) was inversely related to the annual number of menstrual cycles between assessments. Weight concern score (B = −0.40, p value = .005) was inversely associated with lumbar spine bone mineral density Z-score change between assessments according to a multivariate model adjusting for age and body mass index. These finding support associations between disordered eating at baseline and future menstrual irregularities or reduced accrual of lumbar spine bone mass in female adolescent endurance runners.