Browse

You are looking at 11 - 20 of 34,827 items for

  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All
Restricted access

Teaching Physical Education Post-COVID-19: Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment

Xiaoping Fan, Sheri M. Treadwell, Taemin Ha, and Catherine Cardina

Purpose: While numerous studies have explored the challenges of teaching physical education during COVID-19, there is a gap in research on physical education post-COVID-19. Therefore, this study aimed to examine physical education practices post-COVID-19, focusing on the changes in curriculum, instruction, and assessment. Method: A mixed method with a concurrent triangulation design was utilized in this study. The participants included 94 physical education teachers. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze quantitative data, while open and axial coding techniques were employed for qualitative data analysis. Results: The results underscore the shifts in the emphasis on the three learning domains in curriculum, instruction, and assessment across various time periods, with a focus on the affective learning domain in postpandemic physical education. Discussion/Conclusions: This study provides insights into teaching physical education post-COVID-19, including adaptation to physical education practice, enhancement of student affective learning, continuity in physical activity promotion, and integration of technology.

Restricted access

The Autoregulation Rest-Redistribution Training Method Mitigates Sex Differences in Neuromuscular and Perceived Fatigue During Resistance Training

Antonio Dello Iacono, Kevin Watson, and Ivan Jukic

Purpose: To examine the sex differences in performance and perceived fatigue during resistance training prescribed using traditional (TRA) and autoregulation rest-redistribution training (ARRT) approaches. Methods: Twelve resistance-trained men and 12 women completed 2 sessions including the bench-press exercise matched for load (75% of 1-repetition maximum), volume (24 repetitions), and total rest (240 s). Sessions were performed in a counterbalanced randomized design with TRA consisting of 3 sets of 8 repetitions with 120-second interset rest and ARRT employing a personalized combination of clusters, repetitions per cluster, and between-clusters rest regulated with a 20% velocity-loss threshold. The effects of TRA and ARRT on velocity loss, unilateral isometric peak force, and rating of fatigue (ROF) were compared between sexes. Results: The velocity loss was generally lower during ARRT compared with TRA (−0.47% [0.11%]), with velocity loss being mitigated by ARRT to a greater extent among males compared with females (−0.37% [0.15%]). A smaller unilateral isometric peak force decline was observed after ARRT than TRA among males compared with females (−38.4 [8.4] N). Lower ROF after ARRT than TRA was found among males compared to females (−1.97 [0.55] AU). Additionally, males reported greater ROF than females across both conditions (1.92 [0.53] AU), and ARRT resulted in lower ROF than TRA overall (−0.83 [0.39] AU). Conclusions: The ARRT approach resulted in decreased velocity loss, peak force impairment, and ROF compared with TRA in both sexes. However, male subjects exhibited more pronounced acute within-session benefits from the ARRT method.

Restricted access

Sport Management Research Productivity and Impact for Ranking Considerations

Chad Seifried, J. Michael Martinez, Yizhou Qian, Claire Zvosec, Per G. Svensson, Brian P. Soebbing, and Kwame Agyemang

The present essay aims to promote further dialogue within the sport management community about research productivity and impact by outlining various considerations that should take place within any potential ranking attempt. Some may question why examining research production and impact matters to sport management education, but the mission of many institutions of higher education is not exclusively centered on teaching and training the next generation of leaders. In many instances, sport management programs and faculty are collectively compelled by their host institution to develop theory and search for answers to important questions that can shape future sport management practices, including classroom activities and materials. In the present essay, a rationale is provided for why sport management programs and individual faculty should be interested in developing their own tailored research output and impact rankings. Next, a list of research product variables is offered for consideration, and a conversation is provided about their need and impact with respect to the uniqueness of sport management—a multi-interdisciplinary field. Finally, recommendations for the weighing of such variables to tailor an approach best suited to programs based on college or department home, faculty appointment/workload, and faculty-to-student ratio are submitted.

Restricted access

Subjective and Objective Monitoring Markers: Are They Related to Game Performance Indicators in Elite Female Volleyball Players?

André Rebelo, Diogo V. Martinho, Inês G. Pires, Inês Arrais, Ricardo Lima, João Valente-dos-Santos, and João R. Pereira

Purpose: This cohort study aimed to investigate the relationship between subjective (wellness and internal training load [ITL]) and objective (neuromuscular fatigue) monitoring markers and performance aspects (reception quality [RQ] and attack efficiency [AE]) in professional female volleyball players. Methods: The study was conducted over an 8-week period during the final mesocycle of the competitive phase. A total of 24 training sessions and 10 matches were included in the analysis. Subjective measures of wellness and ITL were assessed, and neuromuscular fatigue was evaluated using countermovement-jump (CMJ) height. RQ and AE were determined based on game statistics. Results: The study found a positive relationship between wellness and RQ, particularly affecting outside hitters and liberos. ITL showed a positive association with AE, primarily impacting outside hitters, opposite hitters, and middle blockers. Additionally, ITL demonstrated a negative correlation with RQ, mainly affecting outside hitters and liberos. CMJ performance was associated with AE, where a decrease in CMJ height was linked to reduced AE. Conclusions: The findings highlight the importance of considering players’ wellness scores in training and match strategies for different positions. Careful management of training loads, considering both physical and technical demands, is crucial for optimizing performance outcomes. Monitoring neuromuscular fatigue, as indicated by CMJ performance, is particularly relevant for outside hitters, opposite hitters, and middle blockers involved in attack actions. Coaches, trainers, and sports practitioners can use these insights to develop position-specific training protocols and implement effective strategies for maintaining or improving performance metrics under various stressors.

Free access

Erratum. Proportion and Correlates of Children in the US-Affiliated Pacific Region Meeting Sleep, Screen Time, and Physical Activity Guidelines

Journal of Physical Activity and Health

Open access

Myths and Methodologies: Standardisation in Human Physiology Research—Should We Control the Controllables?

Lucy H. Merrell, Oliver J. Perkin, Louise Bradshaw, Harrison D. Collier-Bain, Adam J. Collins, Sophie Davies, Rachel Eddy, James A. Hickman, Anna P. Nicholas, Daniel Rees, Bruno Spellanzon, Lewis J. James, Alannah K.A. McKay, Harry A. Smith, James E. Turner, Francoise Koumanov, Jennifer Maher, Dylan Thompson, Javier T. Gonzalez, and James A. Betts

The premise of research in human physiology is to explore a multifaceted system whilst identifying one or a few outcomes of interest. Therefore, the control of potentially confounding variables requires careful thought regarding the extent of control and complexity of standardisation. One common factor to control prior to testing is diet, as food and fluid provision may deviate from participants’ habitual diets, yet a self-report and replication method can be flawed by under-reporting. Researchers may also need to consider standardisation of physical activity, whether it be through familiarisation trials, wash-out periods, or guidance on levels of physical activity to be achieved before trials. In terms of pharmacological agents, the ethical implications of standardisation require researchers to carefully consider how medications, caffeine consumption and oral contraceptive prescriptions may affect the study. For research in females, it should be considered whether standardisation between- or within-participants in regards to menstrual cycle phase is most relevant. The timing of measurements relative to various other daily events is relevant to all physiological research and so it can be important to standardise when measurements are made. This review summarises the areas of standardisation which we hope will be considered useful to anyone involved in human physiology research, including when and how one can apply standardisation to various contexts.

Restricted access

Bridging the Policy Gap: Examining Physical Education in Colorado

Xiaoping Fan, Jaimie M. McMullen, Brian Dauenhauer, and Jennifer M. Krause

Purpose: Using the social ecological model as a guiding framework, the purpose of this study was to examine the status of physical education in Colorado. Method: A sequential explanatory mixed-method approach was employed to acquire a snapshot of the status of physical education. Participants completed an initial survey followed by semistructured interviews. The quantitative survey data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, and the qualitative data were analyzed using open and axial coding. Results: The results of this study are presented in two parts: an overview of the status of physical education, followed by a detailed analysis of each component of physical education. Discussion/Conclusion: This study demonstrates a comprehensive approach to examining physical education, providing a holistic view of physical education, and serving as a valuable resource for policymakers and stakeholders.

Restricted access

Cadence Paradox in Cycling—Part 2: Theory and Simulation of Maximal Lactate Steady State and Carbohydrate Utilization Dependent on Cycling Cadence

Ralph Beneke and Renate M. Leithäuser

Purpose: To develop and evaluate a theory on the frequent observation that cyclists prefer cadences (RPMs) higher than those considered most economical at submaximal exercise intensities via modeling and simulation of its mathematical description. Methods: The theory combines the parabolic power-to-velocity (v) relationship, where v is defined by crank length, RPM-dependent ankle velocity, and gear ratio, RPM effects on the maximal lactate steady state (MLSS), and lactate-dependent carbohydrate oxidation (CHO). It was tested against recent experimental results of 12 healthy male recreational cyclists determining the v-dependent peak oxygen uptake (VO 2PEAKv ), MLSS (MLSS v ), corresponding power output (P MLSSv ), oxygen uptake at P MLSSv (VO 2MLSSv ), and CHO MLSSv -management at 100 versus 50 per minute, respectively. Maximum RPM (RPM MAX ) attained at minimized pedal torque was measured. RPM-specific maximum sprint power output (P MAXv ) was estimated at RPMs of 100 and 50, respectively. Results: Modeling identified that MLSS v and P MLSSv related to P MAXv (IP MLSSv ) promote CHO and that VO 2MLSSv related to VO 2PEAKv inhibits CHO. It shows that cycling at higher RPM reduces IP MLSSv . It suggests that high cycling RPMs minimize differences in the reliance on CHO at MLSS v between athletes with high versus low RPM MAX . Conclusions : The present theory-guided modeling approach is exclusively based on data routinely measured in high-performance testing. It implies a higher performance reserve above IP MLSSv at higher RPM. Cyclists may prefer high cycling RPMs because they appear to minimize differences in the reliance on CHO at MLSS v between athletes with high versus low RPM MAX .

Restricted access

Effect of 6-Week Sprint Training on Long-Distance Running Performance in Highly Trained Runners

Ryosuke Ando, Chihiro Kojima, Saya Okamoto, Nobukazu Kasai, Daichi Sumi, Kenji Takao, Kazushige Goto, and Yasuhiro Suzuki

Purpose : Long-distance running performance has been reported to be associated with sprint performance in highly trained distance runners. Therefore, we hypothesized that sprint training could enhance distance running and sprint performance in long-distance runners. This study examined the effect of 6-week sprint training on long-distance running and sprint performance in highly trained distance runners. Methods : Nineteen college runners were divided into control (n = 8) and training (n = 11) groups. Participants in the training group performed 12 sprint training sessions in 6 weeks, while those in the control group performed 12 distance training sessions. Before and after the interventions, maximal oxygen uptake ( V ˙ O 2 max ), O2 cost during submaximal running (290 m·min−1 and 310 m·min−1 of running velocity), and time to exhaustion (starting at 290 m·min–1 and increased 10 m·min–1 every minute) were assessed on a treadmill. Additionally, the 100-m and 400-m sprinting times and 3000-m running time were determined on an all-weather track. Results : In the control group, no measurements significantly changed after the intervention. In the training group, the time to exhaustion, 100-m and 400-m sprinting times, and 3000-m running time improved significantly, while V ˙ O 2 max and O2 cost did not change. Conclusions : These results showed that 6-week sprint training improved both sprint and long-distance running performance in highly trained distance runners without a change in aerobic capacity. Improvement in the time to exhaustion without a change in V ˙ O 2 max suggests that the enhancement of long-distance running performance could be attributable to improved anaerobic capacity.

Restricted access

Habitual Nocturnal Sleep, Napping Behavior, and Recovery Following Training and Competition in Elite Water Polo: Sex-Related Effects

Nickos G. Koutouvakis, Nickos D. Geladas, Athanasios Mouratidis, Argyris G. Toubekis, and Petros G. Botonis

Purpose: To examine nocturnal sleep patterns, napping behaviors, and subjective wellness responses of elite water polo players within an in-season week and to identify whether sleeping patterns differ between men and women. Methods: Sleep characteristics of 10 male and 17 female professional water polo players were objectively assessed during 1 week of the in-season period, including 5 training days, 1 match day, and 1 day of rest. Internal load (rating of perceived exertion × duration of training or match) was assessed 30 minutes posttraining or postmatch, and the total quality of recovery was recorded every morning. A series of multilevel models were used to analyze the data. Results: Time in bed and wake-up time were earlier on both training (P < .001) and rest days (P < .001) than on the day of the match. Internal workload did not predict any of the players’ sleeping patterns. Midday naps predicted less time in bed (P = .03) and likely less sleep time (P = .08). The total quality of recovery was predicted only by the total sleep time (P < .01). Women exhibited higher sleep efficiency (P < .001), less waking after sleep onset (P = .01), and a lower number of awakenings (P = .02) than men. Conclusions: The current results indicate that the nocturnal sleep patterns of elite water polo players are not associated with internal load and that women display better nocturnal sleep quality compared with men. As long naps interfere with nocturnal sleep, and total nocturnal sleep time predicts total quality of recovery, we suggest that athletes follow hygiene sleep strategies to facilitate adequate nocturnal sleep and next-day recovery.