Leadership With Legacy in Education-Based Athletics
Volume 38 (2024): Issue 1 (Jan 2024)
Fan Engagement Behavior: Validation of a Theory-Based Scale
Masayuki Yoshida, Rui Biscaia, Sebastian Uhrich, Brian S. Gordon, Marcel Huettermann, and Makoto Nakazawa
In this research, we conducted two studies to validate a multidimensional scale of fan engagement behavior. In Study 1, we generated survey items through a systematic review of the relevant literature, collected data from fans of professional baseball (n = 319) and soccer (n = 301), and provided evidence for the construct and concurrent validity of the scale composed of six dimensions. In Study 2, we reassessed construct validity in professional baseball (n = 582) and found that fan engagement behavior was represented by the proposed six dimensions with a final list of 21 items. Further, our predictive analysis throughout a season showed that fan engagement behavior fully mediated the relationship between predictor (team identification and awareness of fan engagement initiatives) and outcome variables (media viewing frequency, attendance frequency, and flourishing). The developed scale advances our understanding of fans’ voluntary actions that are culturally embedded in spectator sport.
Global Sports and Contemporary China (1st ed.)
Modeling Residents’ Mega Sport Event Social Value: Integrating Social and Economic Mechanisms
Jordan T. Bakhsh, Marijke Taks, and Milena M. Parent
Social value is the difference between monetized social impacts and related economic investments. Stimulating positive social value is a leading concern and focus for sport event stakeholders. However, insights on this socioeconomic phenomenon have concentrated on social or economic mechanisms, not both, and are siloed to host city residents, largely overlooking nonhost city residents central to events. Thus, we integrated social and economic mechanisms to examine host city and nonhost city residents’ mega sport event social value. Data from 1,880 Canadians revealed varying social values (Vancouver and Provincial = negative; Venue-City = neutral; National = positive). Applying a reverse contingent valuation method, findings confirmed the need to integrate (monetized) social and economic mechanisms to calculate social value. Testing an augmented social exchange theory model, findings highlight residents’ perceptual ambivalence to social impacts and the importance of income to estimate social value. Stakeholders should effectively leverage events for social impacts and reconsider event public funding allocation policies.
Research Handbook on Sport and COVID-19
E. Su Jara-Pazmino
The Strength of Community: The Role of Social Support Networks in Sport Officials’ Retention
Jacob K. Tingle, Brittany L. Jacobs, Matthew Katz, and Stacy Warner
Previous researchers have indicated that a sense of community and social support are vital to referee retention; however, little is known about the connection between specific characteristics of sports officials’ networks and retention. To better understand the sports officiating shortage, researchers explored the social support networks of 116 referees utilizing egocentric network analysis. The authors suggest that retention of sports officials depends on the interpersonal ties and network structures within which the referees are embedded. Specifically, resulting hierarchical models confirmed that retention relationships among officials are a multilevel phenomenon, and that outside communication and community were vital network characteristics that fostered retention relationships. Network size, tenure, and the officiating level also were significant when considering an official’s network and its impact on retention. Areas for future research and suggestions for referee managers are presented.
Between Profit and Purpose: Employee Responses to Financial and Social Logics in Women’s Sport
Risa F. Isard, E. Nicole Melton, Elizabeth B. Delia, and Calvin Nite
Recent market growth in women’s sport has happened as fans increasingly support brands that embrace social issues, suggesting that women’s sport houses multiple logics (financial and social) that may be compatible. The purpose of this study is to explore employees’ perspectives of the logics in women’s sport and how these influence their workplace experiences. Using a case study design, we interviewed 15 women’s sport employees. We observed that they navigate both financial and social logics, which they see as compatible. This understanding of a complementary relationship has both behavioral (e.g., collaboration) and emotional (e.g., collective anxiety) consequences for employees. Notably, collective anxiety is simultaneously associated with negative effects and positive coping mechanisms, demonstrating its complexity in shaping individuals’ actions. This research advances understanding of how employees respond to multiple logics and the effects of this process. Insights from this study can help women’s sport managers better support workers.
State-Level Politics and Bias Predict Transgender Athlete Bans
Kelsey M. Garrison and George B. Cunningham
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among the political leanings of a state, the state-level implicit and explicit biases against transgender people, and the presence of transgender athlete bans. The authors collected archival data from 2021 and 2022 bans in the United States to examine the hypotheses. As of 2022, 18 states had passed laws barring transgender athletes from participating in sports. Results from regression analyses showed that conservative-leaning states were more likely to enact transgender athlete bans than their peers. The relationship was mediated by explicit (but not implicit) bias toward transgender people. The findings have implications for research and practice. Sport managers have an opportunity to create transgender-inclusive workplaces for staff, coaches, and other managers. They should also work with campus counselors and other staff to ensure that transgender athletes have ample support.
Organizational-Level Factors That Influence Women Coaches’ Experiences
James P. Strode, Heidi M. Parker, and Shannon Kerwin
The purpose of this study was to identify the supports and barriers women coaches experience at the organizational level and to determine how those factors influence interpersonal- and individual-level factors within their coaching context. Nine women who coach high school basketball were interviewed at two time points and asked to reflect on organizational-level factors relative to their coaching position and how those factors have shaped their coaching experience over time. Based on the results of the interviews, two organizational-level factors were identified as barriers for participants: navigating inconsistent hiring practices and hypermasculine culture within school sport. The participants described organizational-level factors as influencing their experiences at both interpersonal (e.g., support from mentors, barriers related to the athletic directors) and individual (e.g., age, experience, sexual orientation) levels. The findings provide empirical support for specific organizational factors that contribute to interpersonal- and individual-level coach experiences. The power structures embedded in these associations are defined and discussed.