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Evaluating Change in Body Composition and Impact of Menarche Across a Competitive Season in Elite Collegiate Gymnasts

Sam R. Moore, Hannah E. Cabre, Amanda N. Gordon, and Abbie E. Smith-Ryan

The purpose of this study was to evaluate change in bone mineral density (BMD), BMD percentile (BMDp), lean mass (LM), fat-free mass index, body fat percentage (BF%), and muscle size (mCSA) and quality (EI) in collegiate female gymnasts over a competitive season and characterize the impact of menarche on changes. Twenty gymnasts completed a validated survey to assess age of menarche. Body composition was assessed via whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans at pre- and postseason. mCSA and EI were determined from a panoramic ultrasound scan of the vastus lateralis. Pre- to postseason changes were evaluated using paired sample t tests, and strength of relationships between were analyzed via bivariate correlations and linear regression. Significant losses in body fat percentage (Δ -1.1 ± 1.9%; p = .022) and EI (Δ -5.0 ± 5.8 a.u.; p = .002) were observed. No significant changes were observed in BMDp, mCSA, BMD, LM, or fat-free mass index (p = .310–.869). Age of menarche (15.4 ± 1.5 years) was negatively correlated with Δ BMDp (r = −.454; p = .044) and Δ mCSA (r = −.658; p = .002), explaining 21% and 43% of variation in Δ BMDp and Δ mCSA, respectively. Positive outcomes of gymnastics training, such as gains in LM and mCSA, may be attenuated by delayed menarche, suggested by increased EI and decreased body fat percentage, despite no changes in mCSA or overall LM. These findings may indicate a higher priority of fat utilization within the muscle over muscle and bone growth. Considering menarche as a significant predictor for Δ mCSA, this lack of increase (despite improved EI), may signify increased injury risk resulting from team-specific training style or insufficient energy intake to support appropriate muscle growth.

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Quantitative Hormone Analysis Reveals Sources of Variability in the Menstrual Cycle

Gavin Francis and Nicola Keay

Although the fluctuations of hormones over the menstrual cycle are well recognized, this study investigated the variability in these patterns for individual women. This study examined a set of daily blood hormone results from an underlying data set of previous research. Hormones included follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone, progesterone, and estradiol taken over one menstrual cycle in 20 women of reproductive age (age 20–36 years), with ultrasound-confirmed ovulation. Although every woman’s profile of hormone changes was consistent with the expected physiological sequence of events, there was notable variability in the timing and peak levels. Variability in the length of the follicular phase was greater than in the length of the luteal phase, with the greater part of the variability in the cycle length being explained by variability in the follicular phase. Lower levels of FSH at the beginning of the cycle were associated with a longer follicular phase. Variability in the timing of events around ovulation was relatively consistent across all women. Variability in the length of the luteal phase was associated with the duration of elevated levels of progesterone. Differences were seen in the extent to which FSH increased at the end of the cycle. This study suggests the variability of the first part of the follicular phase may be due to initial FSH changes. Understanding the variability of menstrual cycle hormones is relevant for all women. Identifying subclinical ovulatory disturbances and variability is important to understand female health, across different populations including menstruating women and female athletes.

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Erratum. A Typology of Circular Sport Business Models: Enabling Sustainable Value Co-Creation in the Sport Industry

Journal of Sport Management

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“If This Is What Working in Sports Is, I Want Absolutely No Part of It”: Women’s Experiences With Sexual Harassment in Sport Organizations

Elizabeth Taylor, Katherine Sveinson, and Laura Burton

There is a plethora of recent examples from the sport industry that situate sport organizations as contributing to sexual violence against women (e.g., Phoenix Suns, Nike). Though research has shown that these issues exist in sport, little work has focused on the impacts of gender-based violence and sexual harassment. Therefore, utilizing gender regimes as our conceptual framework, we explored how experiences of gender-based violence and sexual harassment within sport organizations work to perpetuate the gender inequality in sport workplaces. Findings illustrate the influence of a multilevel relationship to the gender-based violence and sexual harassment experienced by women is impacted by the presence of gender regimes and use of containment strategies to conceal this abuse. Thus, we argue that institutional-level failures to protect women represent organizational success, which reinforces gender regimes and the purposeful containment of these incidents maintains the gender/power hierarchy.

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Using Social Learning Spaces to Think Beyond and Innovate Conventional Conferencing Formats

Fernando Santos, Martin Camiré, Scott Pierce, Dany J. MacDonald, Leisha Strachan, Tarkington Newman, Stewart Vella, and Michel Milistetd

Across the academic landscape, scientific organizations host conferences that enable researchers to come together to foster learning, stimulate innovation, and promote change. Within the diverse field of kinesiology, conferences can help develop and disseminate knowledge on a range of issues such as athlete development and coach education. The purpose of the present article is to discuss the possibilities of thinking beyond conventional conferencing formats by creating dynamic social learning spaces that promote networking, critical thinking, and reflexivity. The theory underpinning social learning spaces is explained, followed by a narrative chronology of the three phases of evolution of the blue room group, an interdisciplinary collaboration of youth sport scholars who aim to foster innovation across subdisciplines of kinesiology. An interpretative summary of the blue room group as a social learning space is presented, in accordance with the principles of caring to make a difference, engaging uncertainty, and paying attention. The perceived benefits of kinesiology, as well as the challenges and limitations of the blue room, are discussed based on the authors’ experiences operating within a continuously evolving and shifting social learning space.

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Examining Audiences’ Information-Seeking Behavior Surrounding the Super Bowl and Sex Trafficking: Insights From Google Trends Data

Wenche Wang, Stacy-Lynn Sant, and Elizabeth King

Sex trafficking is a prominent human rights issue that has been increasingly associated with the hosting of large-scale sport events. Despite insufficient evidence demonstrating a causal or correlative link, event stakeholders have implemented antitrafficking efforts in attempts to prevent and promote awareness of sex trafficking. Using Google Trends data to measure audiences’ information-seeking behavior online and Twitter data as a proxy for antitrafficking efforts on social media, we employed a difference-in-differences approach to estimate the change in online demand for sex-trafficking information among the residents of Miami-Dade, the host city of Super Bowl LIV (54). Findings highlight an increase in the online demand for sex-trafficking information in the host city during and after the event. This increased demand attributed to the Super Bowl may offer support for host communities utilizing sport events to promote awareness of pressing social issues.

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Erratum. Mediated Sports Money: An Analysis of the Relationship Between Sports Media Consumption and College Students’ Perceived Financial Understanding

International Journal of Sport Communication

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The Lifetime Fitness Program: Structured Physical Activity for Older Adults and Meaningful Experiential Learning for Kinesiology Students

Emerson Sebastião, Ashley M. Morgan, Kaitlyn P. Pawelczyk, and Jonathon W. Senefeld

Physical activity is associated with improvements in both health and longevity and is highly recommended for older adults. Public health and nonprofit organizations have invested considerable efforts to promote physical activity among this population. The present manuscript describes the specifics of the first university-based adult fitness program (Lifetime Fitness Program) and how this program promotes healthy aging through physical activity while serving as an important venue for experiential learning among students. Thus, the goal of this paper is to provide a “road map” to guide strategies and methods to promote physical activity and healthy aging in an academic setting and provide students with meaningful experiential learning opportunities.

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Mediated Sports Money: An Analysis of the Relationship Between Sports Media Consumption and College Students’ Perceived Financial Understanding

Patrick C. Gentile, Zachary W. Arth, Emily J. Dirks, and Nicholas R. Buzzelli

This study investigated the correlation between sports media consumption and its influence on college students’ perception of finances. Through the lens of cultivation theory, the study sought to gauge how financial information featured in sports media may impact college students’ perceptions about money. A survey was distributed to 225 participants across four states. Results indicate that students who consume a greater amount of sports media are more likely to have a higher perceived understanding of financial concepts, higher confidence when it comes to finances, and even an elevated perception of entry-level salaries when compared with non–sports fans. Overall, sports media consumption can influence how college student sports fans perceive finances.

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“Seven Weeks Is Not a Lot of Time”: Temporal Work and Institutional Change in Australian Football

Joshua McLeod, Géraldine Zeimers, Jonathan Robertson, Catherine Ordway, Lee McGowan, and David Shilbury

Recognizing the importance of timing in efforts to drive institutional change, this study examined how actors engage in “temporal institutional work” in their attempts to disrupt inequitable institutions in sport. A qualitative case study was conducted on football (soccer) in Australia wherein significant gender equity reforms have been enacted. The findings revealed how the temporal activities of entraining (e.g., capitalizing on external interventions), constructing urgency (e.g., through advocacy), and enacting momentum (e.g., through consensus-based leadership) allowed actors to exploit a time-sensitive window of opportunity for change, quickly foster a perception of irreversibility that structural change would occur, and generate synchronicity with broader reforms. Inspired by the breakthroughs in Australian football, this research highlights temporal-based strategies for combating gender inequity in sport. Theoretically, this study extends research on institutional work in sport by illuminating the key role that timing norms play during institutional change.