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Kirsten Dillon-Rossiter, Madison Hiemstra, Nina Bartmann, Wuyou Sui, Marc Mitchell, Scott Rollo, Paul A. Gardiner, and Harry Prapavessis

Office workers who transitioned to working from home are spending an even higher percentage of their workday sitting compared with being “in-office” and this is an emerging health concern. With many office workers continuing to work from home since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, it is imperative to have a validated self-report questionnaire to assess sedentary behavior, break frequency, and duration, to reduce the cost and burden of using device-based assessments. This secondary analysis study aimed to validate the modified Last 7-Day Sedentary Behavior Questionnaire (SIT-Q 7d) against an activPAL4™ device in full-time home-based “office” workers (n = 148; mean age = 44.90). Participants completed the modified SIT-Q 7d and wore an activPAL4 for a full work week. The findings showed that the modified SIT-Q 7d had low (ρ = .35–.37) and weak (ρ = .27–.28) criterion validity for accurate estimates of break frequency and break duration, respectively. The 95% limits of agreement were large for break frequency (26.85–29.01) and medium for break duration (5.81–8.47), indicating that the modified SIT-Q 7d may not be appropriate for measuring occupational sedentary behavior patterns at the individual level. Further validation is still required before confidently recommending this self-report questionnaire to be used among this population to assess breaks in sedentary time.

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Sam N. Thrower, Christopher M. Spray, and Chris G. Harwood

The purpose of the current study was to utilize the RE-AIM (i.e., reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance) framework to evaluate the national-level scale-out of the Lawn Tennis Association’s “Optimal Competition Parenting Workshop” (OCPW) across a 4-year period. During 2018, 65 workshops were run across the United Kingdom, 1,043 parents registered, and 933 parents attended. Adopting a quasi-experimental design, multilevel analyses revealed significant increases in parents’ (n = 130) task goal orientation and competition tennis parenting efficacy, as well as significant decreases in ego goal orientation and unpleasant emotions. Children’s perceptions of both mother- and father-initiated ego-involving motivational climate and their own ego goal orientation significantly decreased across time. From 2019 to 2021, a further 64 workshops were delivered to 1,110 parents with no significant differences in parents’ satisfaction, enjoyment, instructor evaluation, or transfer intention over time when compared against workshop evaluations in 2018. Overall, the OCPW represents a well-received, practical, and effective brief intervention for enhancing parental involvement in junior tennis.

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Milla Saarinen, Raymond Bertram, Kaisa Aunola, Julia Pankkonen, and Tatiana V. Ryba

The present study longitudinally examined stability and change in the attributional profiles of Finnish student athletes (n = 391) in upper secondary sport schools. Moreover, it examined the extent to which these profiles, and changes in them, were associated with athletes’ level of sport competition and school achievements and dropouts at the end of upper secondary sport school. Using latent profile analysis, five different and highly stable attributional profiles were identified for student athletes: (a) depressive (6.9%), (b) athletic self-serving (23.0%), (c) average (16.4%), (d) learned helplessness (30.9%), and (e) responsible (22.8%). The results further showed that over the 3-year study period, the responsible attributional style, wherein individuals take responsibility for successes and failures, predicted student athletes’ subsequent high grade point average and low sport dropout rates even after controlling for the impacts of their earlier grade point average, gender, and type of sport.

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Kim Gammage, Jeff Caron, Alyson Crozier, Alison Ede, Matt Hoffman, Christopher Hill, Sean Locke, Desi McEwan, Kathleen Mellano, Eva Pila, Matthew Stork, and Svenja Wolf

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Yu Osugi, Aiko Imai, Toshiyuki Kurihara, Keiko Kishigami, Kazuhiko Higashida, and Kiyoshi Sanada

This study aimed to investigate the interaction between sarcopenic obesity and locomotive and nonlocomotive physical activity (PA) on the risk of depressive symptoms in community-dwelling older Japanese women. Participants were 143 community-dwelling older women aged 64–94 years. PA was measured using a three-axis accelerometer. Participants were classified according to two levels of total, locomotive, and nonlocomotive PA. Depressive symptoms were assessed by a self-administered survey consisting of the 15-item Japanese version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15-J). The interaction between sarcopenic obesity groups and total or locomotive PA did not affect GDS-15-J scores. However, the interaction between sarcopenic obesity groups and nonlocomotive PA significantly affected GDS-15-J scores (p < .05). Moreover, sarcopenic obesity in the low PA group had significantly higher GDS-15-J scores compared with sarcopenic obesity in the high PA group (p < .05). We concluded that sarcopenic obesity combined with low nonlocomotive PA may exacerbate depressive symptoms in older women.

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Essi-Mari Tuomola, Kirsi E. Keskinen, Timo Hinrichs, Taina Rantanen, and Erja Portegijs

Little is known about older adults’ physical exercise destinations. We studied associations between physical activity (PA) level and physical exercise destinations (total number and surrounding environment) in community-dwelling 75- to 85-year-old adults living in Central Finland. Participants (N = 901) reported the amount of at least moderate-intensity PA and physical exercise destinations. Distance from home, land use, and locations of sport facilities were defined using a geographic information system. A general linear model showed that older adults with higher PA reported higher numbers of physical exercise destinations and destinations further away from home than those reporting lower PA. Binary logistic regression showed that higher PA increased the odds of reporting a distant destination identified as a sports facility and of reporting destinations located in residential, service, forest, and water body areas, respectively. Physical exercise destinations in different environments may attract older people to go out and be more physically active.

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Thaneswaran Marthammuthu, Farizah Mohd Hairi, Wan Yuen Choo, Nur Afiqah Mohd Salleh, and Noran Naqiah Hairi

While physical activity ensures healthy aging, rural community-dwelling older women tend to be more physically inactive compared with their counterparts in Malaysia. As social support is one of the key determinants of physical activity, this retrospective, cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence of physical activity and its association with social support among 1,221 rural community-dwelling older women in Kuala Pilah, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. The prevalence of physical activity among older women was 45.1% with the highest prevalence reported for housework domain (52.3%). The total mean Duke Social Support index score was 27.24 ± 3.40. Multivariate analysis reported age, employment status, and income level to demonstrate significant association with the physical activity after adjusting for confounders. Older women with an increase in social interaction score were more likely (odds ratio = 1.22; 95% confidence interval [1.10, 1.34]; p < .001) to have high physical activity when adjusted for sociodemographic, health, mental health, and physical disability. Contrarily, older women with an increase in one subjective social support score were less likely (odds ratio = 0.91; 95% confidence interval [0.87, 0.96]; p < .001) to have high physical activity when adjusted for confounders. The findings were insightful to tailor interventions on promoting social support for physical activity enhancement among older women.

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Madeline E. Shivgulam, Jennifer L. Petterson, Liam P. Pellerine, Derek S. Kimmerly, and Myles W. O’Brien

Stepping cadence is an important determinant of activity intensity, with faster stepping associated with the most health benefits. The Stryd monitor provides real-time feedback on stepping cadence. The limited existing literature has neither validated the Stryd across slow walking to fast running speeds nor strictly followed statistical guidelines for monitor validation studies. We assessed the criterion validity of the Stryd monitor to detect stepping cadence across multiple walking and jogging/running speeds. It was hypothesized that the Stryd monitor would be an accurate measure of stepping cadence across all measured speeds. Forty-six participants (23 ± 5 years, 26 females) wore the Stryd monitor on their shoelaces during a 10-stage progressive treadmill walking (Speeds 1–5) and jogging/running (Speeds 6–10) protocol (criterion: manually counted video-recorded cadence; total stages: 438). Standardized guidelines for physical activity monitor statistical analyses were followed. A two-way repeated-measure analysis of variance revealed the Stryd monitor recorded a slightly higher cadence (<1 steps/min difference, all p < .001) at 2 miles/hr (92.1 ± 6.2 steps/min vs. 91.5 ± 6.4 steps/min, p < .001), 2.5 miles/hr (101.3 ± 6.1 steps/min vs. 100.7 ± 6.4 steps/min), and 3.5 miles/hr (117.4 ± 5.9 steps/min vs. 117.0 ± 6.0 steps/min). However, equivalence testing demonstrated high equivalence of the Stryd and manually counted cadence (equivalence zone required: ≤± 2.6%) across all speeds. The Stryd activity monitor is a valid measure of stepping cadence across walking, jogging, and running speeds. By providing real-time cadence feedback, the Stryd monitor has strong potential to help guide the general public monitor their stepping intensity to promote more habitual activity at faster cadences.

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Tracy Nau, William Bellew, Billie Giles-Corti, Adrian Bauman, and Ben J. Smith

Background: The development of policies that promote and enable physical activity (PA) is a global health priority. Laws are an important policy instrument that can enable enduring beneficial outcomes for individuals, organizations, and environments through multiple mechanisms. This article presents a systematic process for mapping laws relevant to PA, which can be used to understand the role of laws as a powerful PA policy lever. Methods: Building on methods used in public health law research, we developed a protocol for scientific mapping of laws influencing the built environment for PA in Australia. The MonQcle online legal research platform was used for data coding, analysis, and presentation. Results: We describe the 10 key stages of legal mapping that we applied to examine state and territory laws that influence walking and cycling in Australia. Conclusions: Law is a neglected element of policy research for PA. There is a need for accessible legal data to drive the design, investment, and implementation of legal interventions to improve population PA. Legal mapping is a first step toward evaluation of such laws for PA. This paper provides a practical case study and guidance for the 10 stages in legal mapping of laws that influence the built environment for PA.

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Rafael A. Alamilla, NiCole R. Keith, Rebecca E. Hasson, Gregory J. Welk, Deborah Riebe, Sara Wilcox, and Russell R. Pate

Physical activity policy can play a crucial role in ensuring that individuals, communities, and societies can obtain the wide range of health benefits associated with regular physical activity participation. Policies such as Title IX, the Americans With Disabilities Act, and state physical education laws have all increased opportunities for millions of Americans to participate in physical activity. With that said, how policies are developed and implemented vary considerably. The purpose of this manuscript is to contrast an academic conceptual framework with a pragmatic approach for policy implementation. In an ideal world, polices would be developed from foundational knowledge, scaled up to community-level interventions, and implemented in a sequential fashion. However, policy implementation is a disorderly process that requires a practical methodology. The National Physical Activity Plan encompasses strategies and tactics across 10 key societal sectors—and highlights the disorderly process of policy implementation across the various sectors.