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Coingestion of Collagen With Whey Protein Prevents Postexercise Decline in Plasma Glycine Availability in Recreationally Active Men

Thorben Aussieker, Tom A.H. Janssen, Wesley J.H. Hermans, Andrew M. Holwerda, Joan M. Senden, Janneau M.X. van Kranenburg, Joy P.B. Goessens, Tim Snijders, and Luc J.C. van Loon

Whey protein ingestion during recovery from exercise increases myofibrillar but not muscle connective protein synthesis rates. It has been speculated that whey protein does not provide sufficient glycine to maximize postexercise muscle connective protein synthesis rates. In the present study, we assessed the impact of coingesting different amounts of collagen with whey protein as a nutritional strategy to increase plasma glycine availability during recovery from exercise. In a randomized, double-blind, crossover design, 14 recreationally active men (age: 26 ± 5 years; body mass index: 23.8 ± 2.1 kg·m−2) ingested in total 30 g protein, provided as whey protein with 0 g (WHEY), 5 g (WC05); 10 g (WC10), and 15 g (WC15) of collagen protein immediately after a single bout of resistance exercise. Blood samples were collected frequently over 6 hr of postexercise recovery to assess postprandial plasma amino acid kinetics and availability. Protein ingestion strongly increased plasma amino acid concentrations (p < .001) with no differences in plasma total amino acid availability between treatments (p > .05). The postprandial rise in plasma leucine and essential amino acid availability was greater in WHEY compared with the WC10 and WC15 treatments (p < .05). Plasma glycine and nonessential amino acid concentrations declined following whey protein ingestion but increased following collagen coingestion (p < .05). Postprandial plasma glycine availability averaged −8.9 ± 5.8, 9.2 ± 3.7, 23.1 ± 6.5, and 39.8 ± 11.0 mmol·360 min/L in WHEY, WC05, WC10, and WC15, respectively (incremental area under curve values, p < .05). Coingestion of a small amount of collagen (5 g) with whey protein (25 g) is sufficient to prevent the decline in plasma glycine availability during recovery from lower body resistance-type exercise in recreationally active men.

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Becoming a World Champion Powerlifter at 71 Years of Age: It Is Never Too Late to Start Exercising

Cas J. Fuchs, Jorn Trommelen, Michelle E.G. Weijzen, Joey S.J. Smeets, Janneau van Kranenburg, Lex B. Verdijk, and Luc J.C. van Loon

This case study assessed body composition, muscle strength, cardiorespiratory fitness, and metabolic health of the present female world champion powerlifter in the 70+ age category who started resistance exercise training at 63 years of age with no prior experience with structured exercise training. Measures of body composition (magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning, leg volume); strength (one-repetition maximum leg press and extension, maximum voluntary contraction, and handgrip strength); physical function (short physical performance battery); cardiorespiratory fitness (peak oxygen consumption); and metabolic health (oral glucose tolerance test) were assessed. In addition, a muscle biopsy was collected to assess muscle fiber type distribution and cross-sectional area (CSA). Where possible, data were compared with previously (un)published sex- and age-matched data using z scores. Skeletal muscle mass index was calculated by dividing limb muscle mass by height squared. Data from the control groups are expressed as mean ± 95% confidence interval. Our participant (age: 71 years; body mass: 64.5 kg; body mass index: 27.6 kg/m2) reported a good bone mineral density of 1.09 g/cm2 (T score between −1 and +1) and very low values of abdominal and organ body fat (i.e., between 20% and 70% lower compared with a reference group of postmenopausal women). In addition, she showed a 33% greater skeletal muscle mass index when compared with healthy, older female control subjects (7.9 vs. 5.9 [5.7–6.2] kg/m2; n = 61) as well as 37% greater muscle quadriceps CSA (63.8 vs. 46.6 [44.5–48.7] cm2; n = 48) and 46% greater Type II muscle fiber CSA (4,536 vs. 3,097 [2,707–3,488] μm2; n = 19). Absolute leg press muscle strength was 36% greater (190 vs. 140 [132–147] kg; n = 30) and handgrip strength was 33% greater (33 vs. 25 [23–26] kg; n = 48) when compared with healthy, age-matched controls. In conclusion, even for resistance exercise naïve individuals, starting exercise at an advanced age can lead to improvements in body composition and muscle strength allowing older adults to reduce the risk for developing metabolic syndrome, live independently, and even compete at a world class level.

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Caffeine, but Not Creatine, Improves Anaerobic Power Without Altering Anaerobic Capacity in Healthy Men During a Wingate Anaerobic Test

Alisson Henrique Marinho, Marcos David Silva-Cavalcante, Gislaine Cristina-Souza, Filipe Antonio de Barros Sousa, Thays Ataide-Silva, Romulo Bertuzzi, Gustavo Gomes de Araujo, and Adriano Eduardo Lima-Silva

There is a lack of evidence on the additional benefits of combining caffeine (CAF) and creatine (CRE) supplementation on anaerobic power and capacity. Thus, the aim of the present study was to test the effects of combined and isolated supplementation of CAF and CRE on anaerobic power and capacity. Twenty-four healthy men performed a baseline Wingate anaerobic test and were then allocated into a CRE (n = 12) or placebo (PLA; n = 12) group. The CRE group ingested 20 g/day of CRE for 8 days, while the PLA group ingested 20 g/day of maltodextrin for the same period. On the sixth and eighth days of the loading period, both groups performed a Wingate anaerobic test 1 hr after either CAF (5 mg/kg of body mass; CRE + CAF and PLA + CAF conditions) or PLA (5 mg/kg of body mass of cellulose; CRE + PLA and PLA + PLA conditions) ingestion. After the loading period, changes in body mass were greater (p < .05) in the CRE (+0.87 ± 0.23 kg) than in the PLA group (+0.13 ± 0.27 kg). In both groups, peak power was higher (p = .01) in the CAF (1,033.4 ± 209.3 W) than in the PLA trial (1,003.3 ± 204.4 W), but mean power was not different between PLA and CAF trials (p > .05). In conclusion, CAF, but not CRE ingestion, increases anaerobic power. Conversely, neither CRE nor CAF has an effect on anaerobic capacity.

Open access

Trehalose Improved 20-min Cycling Time-Trial Performance After 100-min Cycling in Amateur Cyclists

Nathan Gobbi de Oliveira, Luana Farias de Oliveira, Rafael Pires da Silva, Tamires Nunes Oliveira, Gabriella Berwig Möller, Juliana Murasaki, Manoel Antônio Ramires, Rafael de Almeida Azevedo, Guilherme Giannini Artioli, Hamilton Roschel, Bruno Gualano, and Bryan Saunders

Carbohydrate (CHO) supplementation during endurance exercise can improve performance. However, it is unclear whether low glycemic index (GI) CHO leads to differential ergogenic and metabolic effects compared with a standard high GI CHO. This study investigated the ergogenic and metabolic effects of CHO supplementation with distinct GIs, namely, (a) trehalose (30 g/hr), (b) isomaltulose (30 g/hr), (c) maltodextrin (60 g/hr), and (d) placebo (water). In this double-blind, crossover, counterbalanced, placebo-controlled study, 13 male cyclists cycled a total of 100 min at varied exercise intensity (i.e., 10-min stages at 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 W/kg; repeated three times plus two 5-min stages at 1.0 W/kg before and after the protocol), followed by a 20-min time trial on four separated occasions. Blood glucose and lactate (every 20 min), heart rate, and ratings of perceived exertion were collected throughout, and muscle biopsies were taken before and immediately after exercise. The results showed that trehalose improved time-trial performance compared with placebo (total work done 302 ± 39 vs. 287 ± 48 kJ; p = .01), with no other differences between sessions (all p ≥ .07). Throughout the 100-min protocol, blood glucose was higher with maltodextrin compared with the other supplements at all time points (all p < .05). Heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion, muscle glycogen content, blood glucose, and lactate were not different between conditions when considering the 20-min time trial (all p > .05). Trehalose supplementation throughout endurance exercise improved cycling performance and appears to be an appropriate CHO source for exercise tasks up to 2 hr. No ergogenic superiority between the different types of CHO was established.

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Volume 34 (2024): Issue 2 (Mar 2024)

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Cold Ambient Temperature Does Not Alter Subcutaneous Abdominal Adipose Tissue Lipolysis and Blood Flow in Endurance-Trained Cyclists

Christopher W. Bach, Patrick G. Saracino, Daniel A. Baur, Brandon D. Willingham, Brent C. Ruby, and Michael J. Ormsbee

This study sought to investigate the effect of cold ambient temperature on subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAAT) lipolysis and blood flow during steady-state endurance exercise in endurance-trained cyclists. Ten males (age: 23 ± 3 years; peak oxygen consumption: 60.60 ± 4.84 ml·kg−1·min−1; body fat: 18.4% ± 3.5%) participated in baseline lactate threshold (LT) and peak oxygen consumption testing, two familiarization trials, and two experimental trials. Experimental trials consisted of cycling in COLD (3 °C; 42% relative humidity) and neutral (NEU; 19 °C; 39% relative humidity) temperatures. Exercise consisted of 25 min cycling at 70% LT and 25 min at 90% LT. In situ SCAAT lipolysis and blood flow were measured via microdialysis. Heart rate, core temperature, carbohydrate and fat oxidation, blood glucose, and blood lactate were also measured. Heart rate, core temperature, oxygen consumption, and blood lactate increased with exercise but were not different between COLD and NEU. SCAAT blood flow did not change from rest to exercise or between COLD and NEU. Interstitial glycerol increased during exercise (p < .001) with no difference between COLD and NEU. Fat oxidation increased (p < .001) at the onset of exercise and remained elevated thereafter with no difference between COLD and NEU. Carbohydrate oxidation increased with increasing exercise intensity and was greater at 70% LT in COLD compared to NEU (p = .030). No differences were observed between conditions for any other variable. Cycling exercise increased SCAAT lipolysis but not blood flow. Ambient temperature did not alter SCAAT metabolism, SCAAT blood flow, or fat oxidation in well-trained cyclists, though cold exposure increased whole-body carbohydrate oxidation at lower exercise intensities.

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Volume 34 (2024): Issue S1 (Feb 2024)

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Abstracts From the 2023 International Sport + Exercise Nutrition Conference

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Energy Expenditure of Elite Male and Female Professional Tennis Players During Habitual Training

Daniel G. Ellis, James P. Morton, Graeme L. Close, and Tim F. Donovan

Understanding the daily energy expenditure of athletes during training is important to support recovery, adaptation, and the maintenance of performance. The aim of the current research was to assess the total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) and the acute energy expenditure (EE) of tennis training sessions during habitual training of elite tennis players. Using a cohort study design, 27 (n = 10, male; age; 22.3 ± 3.2 years and n = 17, female; age: 23.8 ± 3.5 years) elite singles tennis players were assessed for TDEE and tennis training EE. Using Actiheart activity monitors during a 2- to 5-day training period, male players were analyzed for 26 days and 33 (1.3 ± 0.5 sessions/day) tennis training sessions, and female players for 43 days and 58 (1.2 ± 0.4 sessions/day) tennis training sessions. Male TDEE (4,708 ± 583 kcal/day) was significantly higher than female (3,639 ± 305 kcal/day). Male absolute and relative tennis training EEs (10.2 ± 2.3 kcal/min and 7.9 ± 1.4 kcal·hr−1·kg−1) were significantly higher than those of females (7.6 ± 1.0 kcal/min and 6.8 ± 0.9 kcal·hr−1·kg−1). The resting metabolic rate was assessed via indirect calorimetry. The physical activity level for both groups was 2.3 AU. The TDEE of male and female players during habitual training now highlights the continual cycle of high energy demands experienced by the elite tennis player. The broad ranges of TDEE and EE reported here suggest individual assessment and nutritional planning be prioritized, with a particular focus on carbohydrate requirements.

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Caffeine Does Not Alter Performance, Perceptual Responses, and Oxidative Stress After Short Sprint Interval Training

Mauro F. Bernardo, Alysson Enes, Elisangela F. Rezende, Alexandre R. Okuyama, Ragami C. Alves, Murilo de Andrade, Ana Carolina G. Macedo, Marcelo Paes de Barros, Darren G. Candow, Scott C. Forbes, and Tácito P. Souza-Junior

Despite the abundance of research investigating the efficacy of caffeine supplementation on exercise performance, the physiological and biochemical responses to caffeine supplementation during intermittent activities are less evident. This study investigated the acute effects of caffeine supplementation on measures of exercise performance, ratings of perceived exertion, and biomarkers of oxidative stress induced by an acute bout of sprint interval training. In a randomized crossover design, 12 healthy males (age: 26 ± 4 years, height: 177.5 ± 6 cm, body mass: 80.7 ± 7.6 kg) ingested 6 mg/kg of caffeine or placebo 60 min prior to performing sprint interval training (12 × 6 s “all-out sprints” interspersed by 60 s of rest). Performance scores and ratings of perceived exertion were assessed after every sprint. Blood samples were collected before supplementation, prior to and following each sprint, and 5 and 60 min after the last sprint. Caffeine had no effect on any performance measures, ratings of perceived exertion, or biomarkers of oxidative stress (p > .05). In conclusion, caffeine supplementation does not improve performance or decrease oxidative stress after an acute bout of sprint interval training.