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How Does the University Environment Relate to Student’s Physical Activity Patterns in Ireland

Joey Murphy, Ciaran MacDonncha, Marie H. Murphy, Niamh Murphy, and Catherine B. Woods

Background: Identifying factors related to physical activity in university students can aid the development of health promotion interventions, but there is limited research regarding the influence of university environments. This study examined the relationship between level of provision for university environments that aim to promote physical activity and self-reported physical activity patterns of students. Methods: An environmental audit tool was completed by universities (n = 28) on the island of Ireland to acquire information about physical activity opportunities, resources, and supports offered. Students (N = 6951; 50.7% male; 21.51 [5.55] y) completed an online survey, providing responses about their active transport and recreational physical activity behaviors. Binary logistic regressions were used to examine the associations between environmental factors that support physical activity and clustered physical activity patterns, while controlling for gender, age, and university size. Results: Universities with a high provision for organizational structures and internal partnerships, indoor facilities, and sport clubs increase the odds of their students having more active physical activity patterns. Increased provision of investment and personnel was seen to have a mixed relationship with students’ physical activity engagement, highlighting the need to understand where resources are needed and not just increase them. Conclusions: It is important for universities to have adequate organizational structures with internal partnerships to understand how resources can be maximized to support physical activity engagement across the whole student population. University campuses hold the potential for increasing student engagement in physical activity, and these findings can help inform campus-wide initiatives that foster active student populations for improving overall long-term health.

Open access

Measuring Active Transportation on National Health Surveys in Canada From 1994 to 2020

Parya Borhani, Kathryn L. Walker, Gregory P. Butler, Valérie Lavergne, Gisèle Contreras, and Stephanie A. Prince

Background: Active transportation (AT), described as self-powered modes of travel (eg, walking and cycling), is an important source of health-promoting physical activity. While AT behaviors have been measured on national health surveys in Canada for over 2 decades, historic prevalence has not been previously reported. We aimed to document the measures of AT on Canada’s various national health surveys, examine AT over time, and interpret them within the context of evolving methods of assessment. Methods: We compiled and summarized the questions used to measure AT among Canadians on 4 national health surveys: National Population Health Survey (1994–1998), Canadian Community Health Survey (2000–2020), Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007–2019), and the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study (2010–2018). Among youth and adults (12+ y), we summarized over time: (1) the prevalence of AT participation and (2) time spent in AT (in hours per week) among those who report any AT participation. Where possible, we reported separate estimates of walking and cycling and produced an aggregate estimate of total AT. We stratified results by age group and sex. Results: Changes in AT survey questions over time and between surveys limit the interpretation and comparability of temporal trends. Nevertheless, a consistently higher proportion of females report walking, while a higher proportion of males report cycling. Irrespective of mode, males report spending more total time in AT. Participation in AT tends to decrease with age, with youth reporting the highest rates of AT and young adults often spending the most time in AT. Conclusions: Monitoring trends in AT can help assess patterns of behavior and identify whether promotion strategies are needed or whether population interventions are effective. Our evaluation of AT over time is limited by questions surveyed; however, consistent differences in AT by age and sex are evident over time. Moving forward, ensuring consistency of AT measurement over time is essential to monitoring this important behavior.

Free access

Prevalence and Correlates of Adherence to the Global Total Physical Activity Guideline Based on Step Counting Among 3- to 4-Year-Olds: Evidence From SUNRISE Pilot Studies From 17 Countries

Tawonga W. Mwase-Vuma, Xanne Janssen, Kar Hau Chong, Anthony D. Okely, Mark S. Tremblay, Catherine E. Draper, E. Kipling Webster, Alex Antonio Florindo, Amanda E. Staiano, Bang Nguyen Pham, Chiaki Tanaka, Denise Koh, Hongyan Guan, Hong K. Tang, Marie Löf, Mohammad Sorowar Hossain, Nyaradzai E. Munambah, Penny Cross, PW Prasad Chathurangana, and John J. Reilly

Background: There is limited evidence from globally diverse samples on the prevalence and correlates of meeting the global guideline of 180 minutes per day of total physical activity (TPA) among 3- to 4-year-olds. Methods: Cross-sectional study involving 797 (49.2% girls) 3- to 4-year-olds from 17 middle- and high-income countries who participated in the pilot phases 1 and 2 of the SUNRISE International Study of Movement Behaviours in the Early Years. Daily step count was measured using thigh-worn activPAL accelerometers. Children wore the accelerometers for at least one 24-hour period. Children were categorized as meeting the TPA guideline based on achieving ≥11,500 steps per day. Descriptive analyses were conducted to describe the proportion of meeting the TPA guideline for the overall sample and each of the sociodemographic variables, and 95% CIs were calculated. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the sociodemographic correlates of meeting the TPA guideline. Results: Mean daily step count was 10,295 steps per day (SD = 4084). Approximately one-third of the sample (30.9%, 95% CI, 27.6–34.2) met the TPA guideline. The proportion meeting the guideline was significantly lower among girls (adjusted OR [aOR] = 0.70, 95% CI, 0.51–0.96) and 4-year-olds (aOR = 0.50, 95% CI, 0.34–0.75) and higher among rural residents (aOR = 1.78, 95% CI, 1.27–2.49) and those from lower middle-income countries (aOR = 1.35, 95% CI, 0.89–2.04). Conclusions: The findings suggest that a minority of children might meet the TPA guideline globally, and the risk of not meeting the guideline differed by sociodemographic indicators. These findings suggest the need for more surveillance of TPA in young children globally and, possibly, interventions to improve childhood health and development.

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The Evolution of Physical Activity and Health Research in China: A Bibliometric Analysis of Study Areas and Sex Balance in Authorship

Kaiyue Zhang, Diana Morales, Junshi Chen, Wenhua Zhao, Anne Tang, Eduardo Kohn, Ding Ding, Andrea Ramirez Varela, Michael Pratt, and Pedro C. Hallal

Background: This article evaluates the evolution of physical activity and health research in China through a bibliometric analysis focused on number of publications, study areas, and sex balance in authorship. Methods: A systematic review was conducted by the Global Observatory for Physical Activity for “physical activity and health” publications between 1950 and 2019. Here, we focus on the 610 Chinese publications identified, defined as those in which data collection took place in China. We assessed the number of publications, classified them into 5 areas (1) surveillance, (2) correlates and determinants, (3) health consequences, (4) interventions, and (5) policy, and analyzed female participation in authorship. Results: The first Chinese publication identified in the review was in 1990. Since, the average number of physical activity and health publications increased from one per year in the 1990s to 7.6 per year in the 2000s, and to 47 per year in the 2010s. Most publications focused on the correlates and determinants (38.7%) and the health consequences of physical activity (35.9%). Physical activity policy accounted for 2.3% of the publications. In the 1990s, 64% of the publications included at least one female author; this proportion increased to 90% in the 2010s. Conclusion: Despite a slow start, China’s research on physical activity and health has grown rapidly since 2000. The distribution of publications by study areas and female participation in authorship is similar to that observed globally, with fewer publications focused on interventions and policy as compared with other topics.

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Physical Activity Among Utah Cancer Survivors: Analysis From a Population-Based Statewide Survey

Morgan M. Millar, Sandra L. Edwards, Rachel R. Codden, Blessing S. Ofori-Atta, Kimberly A. Herget, Marjorie E. Carter, Anne C. Kirchhoff, Adriana M. Coletta, and Carol Sweeney

Background: Regular physical activity improves cancer survivors’ health-related quality of life and physical function. We estimated the proportion of Utah cancer survivors meeting U.S. Department of Health and Human Services guidelines for weekly physical activity (aerobic plus strength exercise) and identify sociodemographic, cancer, and health-related factors associated with meeting guidelines. Methods: Survivors randomly sampled from Utah Cancer Registry records were surveyed from 2018 to 2022 to ascertain physical activity. We calculated the percent of survivors meeting guidelines and conducted logistic regression to assess predictors of meeting guidelines. Analyses were weighted to account for complex survey sample design and nonresponse and age adjusted. Results: Among Utah cancer survivors, 20.7% (95% CI, 18.5%–23.2%) met guidelines for both aerobic activity and strength exercise. 22.4% reported no aerobic exercise in a typical week, and 59.4% reported no strength exercise. Survivors 75 or older were less likely to meet physical activity guidelines than those under 55 (adjusted odds ratio: 0.40; 95% CI, 0.25–0.65). Survivors with a bachelor’s degree or higher were more likely to meet physical activity guidelines than those without a college degree. Individuals with poorer overall health were less likely to report sufficient physical activity. Individuals treated with both chemotherapy and radiation had decreased odds of meeting guidelines compared to no treatment (adjusted odds ratio: 0.54; 95% CI, 0.29–0.99). Conclusions: Most Utah cancer survivors, and particularly those who received multiple modes of adjuvant treatment, are not participating in sufficient physical activity to improve longevity and quality of life after cancer.

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Criterion Validity and Reliability of 2 Brief Physical Activity Questionnaires in Ethnically Diverse Adults

Norberto N. Quiles, David Uher, Anoop Balachandran, Alexis Ortiz, and Carol Garber

Purpose: The study compares moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) as evaluated by the Exercise Vital Signs (EVS) and Physical Activity Vital Signs (PAVS) questionnaires to accelerometry, and evaluates the reliability of the questionnaires in ethnically diverse adults. Methods: Ninety-nine participants (mean age 38.1 y; 49.5% women; Hispanics 43.8%; European American 18.8%; African American 14.6%) were included in the analyses. Participants wore an accelerometer at the hip for at least 7 days and completed the EVS and PAVS questionnaires at the beginning (T1) and at the end (T2) of the 7 days. Associations between the questionnaires and accelerometry were examined using Spearman rho. The reliability of the questionnaires was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficient. Sensitivity and specificity were also calculated. Results: Weak positive correlations were observed between the accelerometer MVPA and the EVS MVPA at T2 (ρ = .263, P = .013), and the PAVS MVPA at T2 (ρ = .327, P = .003). The sensitivity of the EVS and PAVS was 73.2% and 82.6%, respectively. The specificity for each questionnaire was 35.3%. The reliability for the EVS questionnaire (intraclass correlation coefficient = .855; 95% CI, .791–.901; P < .001) was good, while the reliability of the PAVS questionnaire (intraclass correlation coefficient = .652; 95% CI, .511–.758; P < .001) was moderate. Conclusion: Caution should be used when utilizing the EVS and PAVS questionnaires in ethnically diverse adults.

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Process Evaluation of a Scaled-Up School-Based Physical Activity Program for Adolescents: Physical Activity 4 Everyone

Matthew Mclaughlin, Jed Duff, Elizabeth Campbell, Tom McKenzie, Lynda Davies, Luke Wolfenden, John Wiggers, and Rachel Sutherland

Background: Physical Activity 4 Everyone (PA4E1) is a whole-school physical activity program, with demonstrated efficacy (2012–2014). PA4E1 was adapted (scaled-up) and tested in a scale-up trial (2017–2020). This process evaluation study of the scale-up trial had 2 aims. First, to describe the acceptability, appropriateness, and feasibility of PA4E1 in the scale-up trial, from the perspective of school staff involved in the program management and delivery. Second, to generate themes that may explain school staff assessments of acceptability, appropriateness, and feasibility. Methods: Data were collected at various time points throughout the 2-year implementation phase. Online surveys were collected from In-School Champions, Head Physical Education teachers, Principals, and Physical Education teachers (quantitative data). Focus groups and interviews were conducted with In-School Champions, Principals, and Physical Education teachers (qualitative data). Existing published data on website engagement, adaptations, modifications, and the scale-up trial primary outcome (implementation of physical activity practices) were triangulated with the quantitative and qualitative during analysis, to generate themes. Results: School staff delivering PA4E1 reported it was highly acceptable, appropriate, and feasible. Seven themes were generated relating to acceptability, appropriateness, and feasibility. The themes related to how the program was funded, the delivery modes of implementation support, the identification of easy-wins, the recruitment of the right in-school champion, facilitating principal buy-in, mitigating the impact of school staff turnover, and engaging the whole school. Conclusions: Recommendations are made to inform future adaptations for PA4E1 and potentially school-based physical activity programs more generally. The findings may inform future scalability assessments of the suitability of programs for scale-up.

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Volume 21 (2024): Issue 6 (Jun 2024)

Free access

Erratum. Proportion and Correlates of Children in the US-Affiliated Pacific Region Meeting Sleep, Screen Time, and Physical Activity Guidelines

Journal of Physical Activity and Health

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Proportion and Correlates of Children in the US-Affiliated Pacific Region Meeting Sleep, Screen Time, and Physical Activity Guidelines

Sarah T. Ryan, Anthony D. Okely, Kar Hau Chong, Rebecca M. Stanley, Melanie Randle, Gade Waqa, Ashley B. Yamanaka, Rachael Leon Guerrero, Patricia Coleman, Leslie Shallcross, Lynne R. Wilkens, Jonathan L. Deenik, and Rachel Novotny

Introduction: Limited data on 24-hour movement behaviors of children aged 5–8 years exist globally. We describe the prevalence and sociodemographic associations of meeting physical activity (PA), sedentary recreational screen time (ST), and sleep guidelines among children from 11 jurisdictions in the US-Affiliated Pacific region. Methods: Cross-sectional representative data from 1192 children aged 5–8 years living in the US-Affiliated Pacific region were drawn from the baseline 2012–2014 Children’s Healthy Living Program. Sleep and moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA were calculated from accelerometry. ST and sociodemographic data were collected from caregiver surveys. The percentage of children meeting the Asia-Pacific 24-hour movement guidelines for PA (≥60 min/d of moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA), sleep (≥9 and ≤ 11 h/d) and ST (≤2 h/d) were calculated. Generalized linear mixed models were used to examine associations with adiposity and sociodemographic variables. Results: Twenty-seven percent (95% confidence interval, 24.6–30.0) of children met integrated guidelines; 98% (96.2–98.0) met PA, 78% (75.4–80.0) met sleep, and 35% (32.6–38.0) met ST guidelines. Females (adjusted odds ratio = 1.40 [95% confidence interval, 1.03–1.91]) and those living in lower-middle-income jurisdictions (2.29 [1.49–3.54]) were more likely to meet ST guidelines. Overweight children (0.62 [0.40–0.96]), those aged 8 years (0.39 [0.22–0.69]), and children with caregivers of an education level of high school or beyond (0.44 [0.29–0.68]) were less likely to achieve ST guidelines. Children from midrange annual household incomes were less likely to meet combined guidelines (0.60 [0.39–0.92]). Conclusions: Three-quarters of children are not meeting integrated Asia-Pacific 24-hour movement guidelines. Future strategies for reducing ST and increasing integrated guidelines compliance are needed.