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Gender Differences in Physical Activity and Health-Related Authorships Between 1950 and 2019

Eduardo Ribes Kohn, Pedro Curi Hallal, Gloria Isabel Niño-Cruz, Julia Almentero, Diana Pinzón, Maristela Böhlke, Katja Siefken, Michael Pratt, and Andrea Ramirez-Varela

Background: The objective of this study was to investigate gender differences in authorship in physical activity and health research. Methods: A bibliometric study including 23,399 articles from 105 countries was conducted to estimate the participation of female researchers in physical activity publications from 1950 to 2019. The frequency of female researchers was analyzed and classified by first and last authors and the overall percentage of female authors by region and country. Results: The proportion of female first authors increased from <10% in the 50s and 80s to 55% in the last decade. On the other hand, the proportion of last authors increased from 8.7% to 41.1% in the same period. Most publications with female researchers were from the United States, Canada, Australia, Brazil, the Netherlands, Spain, England, Germany, Sweden, and China. Nine of these countries had over 50% of the articles published by female first authors. However, in all 10 countries, <50% of the articles were published by female last authors. Conclusions: The proportion of female researchers increased over time. However, regional differences exist and should be addressed in gender equity policies. There is a gap in the participation of female researchers as last authors. By actively addressing the gender gap in research, the global society can harness the full potential of all talented individuals, regardless of gender, leading to more inclusive and impactful scientific advancements.

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Green Exercise as an Opportunity to Promote Equity in Physical Activity Engagement Across Diverse Populations

Iris Lesser, Cynthia Thomson, and Melissa Lem

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Proportion and Correlates of Children in the US-Affiliated Pacific Region Meeting Sleep, Screen Time, and Physical Activity Guidelines

Sarah T. Ryan, Anthony D. Okely, Kar Hau Chong, Rebecca M. Stanley, Melanie Randle, Gade Waqa, Ashley B. Yamanaka, Rachael Leon Guerrero, Patricia Coleman, Leslie Shallcross, Lynne R. Wilkens, Jonathan L. Deenik, and Rachel Novotny

Introduction: Limited data on 24-hour movement behaviors of children aged 5–8 years exist globally. We describe the prevalence and sociodemographic associations of meeting physical activity (PA), sedentary recreational screen time (ST), and sleep guidelines among children from 11 jurisdictions in the US-Affiliated Pacific region. Methods: Cross-sectional representative data from 1192 children aged 5–8 years living in the US-Affiliated Pacific region were drawn from the baseline 2012–2014 Children’s Healthy Living Program. Sleep and moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA were calculated from accelerometry. ST and sociodemographic data were collected from caregiver surveys. The percentage of children meeting the Asia-Pacific 24-hour movement guidelines for PA (≥60 min/d of moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA), sleep (≥9 and ≤ 11 h/d) and ST (≤2 h/d) were calculated. Generalized linear mixed models were used to examine associations with adiposity and sociodemographic variables. Results: Twenty-seven percent (95% confidence interval, 24.6–30.0) of children met integrated guidelines; 98% (96.2–98.0) met PA, 78% (75.4–80.0) met sleep, and 35% (32.6–38.0) met ST guidelines. Females (adjusted odds ratio = 1.40 [95% confidence interval, 1.03–1.91]) and those living in lower-middle-income jurisdictions (2.29 [1.49–3.54]) were more likely to meet ST guidelines. Overweight children (0.62 [0.40–0.96]), those aged 8 years (0.39 [0.22–0.69]), and children with caregivers of an education level of high school or beyond (0.44 [0.29–0.68]) were less likely to achieve ST guidelines. Children from midrange annual household incomes were less likely to meet combined guidelines (0.60 [0.39–0.92]). Conclusions: Three-quarters of children are not meeting integrated Asia-Pacific 24-hour movement guidelines. Future strategies for reducing ST and increasing integrated guidelines compliance are needed.

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Where Are Czech Adolescents Active? The Patterns of Movement and Transport Behavior in Different Active Living Domains

Michal Vorlíček, Tom Stewart, Jan Dygrýn, Lukáš Rubín, Josef Mitáš, Jaroslav Burian, Scott Duncan, Jasper Schipperijn, and Michael Pratt

To understand the environmental determinants of physical activity (PA), precise spatial localization is crucial. This cross-sectional study focuses on the spatiotemporal distribution of PA among Czech adolescents (n = 171) using Global Positioning System loggers and accelerometers. The results showed that adolescents spent most of their time in sedentary behavior, with 57.2% and 58.5% of monitored time at home and school, respectively. The park and playground had the lowest proportion of sedentary behavior but also the lowest amount of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA). However, when considering the time spent in each domain, the highest proportion of MVPA was seen in publicly accessible playgrounds (13.3% of the time). Chi-square analysis showed that the relative distribution of different PA intensities did not differ across spatial domains. Based on these results, the authors propose 2 key strategies for increasing MVPA in adolescents: Increase the time spent in activity-supportive environments, such as parks and playgrounds, and design techniques to increase MVPA at home and school settings.

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The Association Between Physical Activity and Fatigue Among Adults With Rheumatic Disease in a Nationally Representative Sample

Jordan E. Lewis, Emily H. Beattie, and Kelly R. Ylitalo

Objective: Adults with rheumatic disease (RD) experience high levels of fatigue. Regular physical activity has been shown to reduce fatigue among adults. Despite this evidence, adults with RD are more likely to be physically inactive compared with those without RD. Little information is known about the association of physical activity level and fatigue among adults with RD. This study investigated the association of physical activity level and fatigue among adults with and without RD. Methods: Adults (≥18 y) who participated in the 2018 National Health Interview Survey (unweighted n = 25,471) were included in this cross-sectional study. Physical activity and fatigue were self-reported. Statistical analyses were weighted to account for complex survey sampling design. Results: Significantly more adults with RD experience fatigue compared with adults without RD (26.19% vs 13.23%). Adults with RD who were inactive had 2.81 times (95% CI, 2.37–3.34) higher odds of experiencing fatigue compared to adults with RD who were sufficiently active, after adjusting for covariates. Conclusions: Overall, fatigue was more common among adults with RD than it was in the population without RD.

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Erratum. No or Low Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity: Focusing on the Least Active as an Additional Approach for Physical Activity Surveillance

Journal of Physical Activity and Health

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Promotion of Physical Activity by Québec Primary Care Physicians: What Has Changed in the Last Decade?

Suzanne Laberge, Véronique Gosselin, Kim Lestage, Miguel Chagnon, and Claude Guimond

Objective: This study aimed to assess the changes in the frequency of physical activity (PA) counseling and in the predictors of primary care PA promotion in Québec primary care physicians (PCPs) between 2010 and 2020. Methods: In 2010, we conducted a survey among Québec PCPs. Questions included: frequency of promoting PA to patients, perceived barriers, needs to improve PA promotion practice, frequency of PCPs’ PA practice, and sociodemographic information. In 2020, we took over the 2010 questionnaire to document the evolution of the PA promotion practice. Results: The proportion of PCPs discussing PA with their patients significantly increased (P < .05) in 2020 for the following health conditions: depression, low back pain, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cancer; it declined (P < .05) for overweight patients, those with metabolic syndrome, and in primary prevention. Collaboration with PA professionals was the major need identified, and it increased in 2020. PCPs’ own practice of PA was a predictor of PA promotion in 2010 (odds ratio = 6.679; P < .001) and in 2020 (odds ratio  = 6.679; P < .001). In both 2010 and in 2020, older or more experienced PCPs were more likely to discuss PA with their patients without diagnosed diseases than younger ones or those with less experience. Conclusions: Over the last 10 years, there has been a significant increase in PCPs promoting PA in Québec; however, it has been mainly oriented toward secondary prevention. It is concerning that PA counseling in primary prevention has declined, notably among younger PCPs. The stronger claim for closer collaboration with kinesiologists suggests that PCPs are in favor of an interprofessional strategy, namely collaboration with PA specialists.

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No or Low Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity: Focusing on the Least Active as an Additional Approach for Physical Activity Surveillance

Raphael H.O. Araujo, André O. Werneck, R. Glenn Weaver, Rafael M. Tassitano, Célia L. Szwarcwald, Gilmar M. Jesus, Deborah C. Malta, Javier Brazo-Sayavera, Grégore I. Mielke, Mark S. Tremblay, and Danilo R.P. Silva

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Analysis of Changes in Physical Fitness in Children and Adolescents (11–15 Years) From Kraków (Poland) During COVID-19 Pandemic

Paulina Artymiak, Magdalena Żegleń, and Łukasz Kryst

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, has posed a threat to society worldwide. The aim of the study was to analyze changes in the physical fitness of 11- to 15-year-olds during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Cross-sectional research was conducted in randomly selected schools in Kraków (Poland) during the years 2020 and 2022. The study group included 1635 adolescents aged 11–15 years. The results of fitness tests such as flexibility, standing broad jump, handgrip strength, overhead medicine ball throw, shuttle run (10 × 5 m), and 30-second sit-ups were analyzed. Body height and weight measurements were also taken. The standing broad jump and handgrip strength were normalized. A statistical analysis was performed to compare the differences between groups using 2-way analysis of variance with the Tukey HSD post hoc test or Kruskal–Wallis test. Results: The test results revealed a deterioration decrease in sit-ups, standing broad jump, shuttle run, and normalized standing broad jump in both sexes. Furthermore, the test results among girls showed a decrease in overhead medicine ball throw and flexibility. An increase in test results of both sexes was noticed in handgrip strength of the right and left hand. Among boys in 2022, the results were better in the flexibility test and overhead medicine ball throw compared with their peers from 2020. Conclusion: This study indicates a decrease in overall physical fitness in adolescents. The observed results may be associated with a decrease in physical activity, changes in nutrition, and restrictions imposed during the COVID-19 pandemic.

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Cultural, Linguistic, and Geographical Diversity of Participants in Australian Physical Activity Research Studies: A Systematic Review

Stephen Gilbert, Alastair Jordan, Ding Ding, Anne Tiedemann, Catherine Sherrington, and Marina De Barros Pinheiro

Background: The Australian population is highly diverse in terms of cultural heritage, languages spoken, and geographical dispersion. Health outcomes are often worse among these culturally, linguistically, and geographically diverse populations, and this is reflected in rates of physical activity participation, with people from these groups often engaging in insufficient physical activity for health benefits. This research aimed to investigate if physical activity intervention studies conducted in Australia were (1) designed to recruit culturally, linguistically, and geographically diverse participants and (2) recruiting culturally, linguistically, and geographically diverse participants. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of physical activity intervention studies conducted in adults in Australia between 2015 and November 2022. Information relevant to inclusivity in study recruitment methods and diversity of recruited participants was extracted. Results: We identified and extracted data from 371 studies, of which 98 were protocol papers for which no follow-up data was available. Only 26 studies (7%) included methods to recruit culturally or linguistically diverse participants. Most studies (189, 51%) recruited participants from major city locations, with few studies recruiting from more remote locations. No studies included recruitment from very remote regions. Information on cultural, linguistic, or geographic diversity of participants recruited to physical activity studies was provided by 109 studies (40% of studies including results) with the majority recruiting White, English-speakers from major cities. Conclusions: Few Australian physical activity studies are designed to recruit culturally, linguistically, and geographically diverse participants. Due to limited reporting of the diversity of participants, comparisons with population-representative data are unreliable.