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A Typology of Circular Sport Business Models: Enabling Sustainable Value Co-Creation in the Sport Industry

Anna Gerke, Julia Fehrer, Maureen Benson-Rea, and Brian P. McCullough

There is a continuing interest in the relationship between sport and nature. As a new field, sport ecology explores the impact sport has on the natural environment and how sport organizations and individuals can promote sustainability. However, a critical element is still missing in the sport ecology discourse—the link between organizations’ sustainability efforts and their value co-creation processes. The circular economy can provide this link by decoupling the value co-creation of sport business models from their environmental impact and resource depletion. Based on an extensive literature review, this study provides a new theoretically derived typology of circular sport business models, including comprehensive reasoning about sustainable value co-creation processes in the sport industry. It explains how sport managers of all three sectors—for-profit, public, and nonprofit—can transition toward more sustainable and circular business practices and offer integrative guidelines for future research.

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Motivations, Barriers, and Supports: An Examination of the Experiences of Women of Color Recreational Sport Coaches

Eric Legg and Rebecca Varney

Coaches play an instrumental role in the experiences of youth sport participants. Though girls participate in youth sport at similar rates as boys, coaching positions continue to be dominated by men. Existing research supports the value of diverse role models, especially for culturally diverse youth, and women coaches of color are especially important in sport given the low participation rates of ethnocultural minorities. Given the importance of diverse role models as sport coaches, this study investigates the experiences of women of color who coach sport at the recreational level. Based on interviews with 14 individuals, and grounded in socioecological theory, our findings describe the experience of research participants at each level (individual, interpersonal, organizational, and sociocultural) with a focus on the entry experience, barriers, and supports. Findings suggest that gendered and racial norms influence experiences across the model, and further lead to practical implications for sport managers.

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Volume 38 (2024): Issue 1 (Jan 2024)

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Fan Engagement Behavior: Validation of a Theory-Based Scale

Masayuki Yoshida, Rui Biscaia, Sebastian Uhrich, Brian S. Gordon, Marcel Huettermann, and Makoto Nakazawa

In this research, we conducted two studies to validate a multidimensional scale of fan engagement behavior. In Study 1, we generated survey items through a systematic review of the relevant literature, collected data from fans of professional baseball (n = 319) and soccer (n = 301), and provided evidence for the construct and concurrent validity of the scale composed of six dimensions. In Study 2, we reassessed construct validity in professional baseball (n = 582) and found that fan engagement behavior was represented by the proposed six dimensions with a final list of 21 items. Further, our predictive analysis throughout a season showed that fan engagement behavior fully mediated the relationship between predictor (team identification and awareness of fan engagement initiatives) and outcome variables (media viewing frequency, attendance frequency, and flourishing). The developed scale advances our understanding of fans’ voluntary actions that are culturally embedded in spectator sport.

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Global Sports and Contemporary China (1st ed.)

Luke Mashburn

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Modeling Residents’ Mega Sport Event Social Value: Integrating Social and Economic Mechanisms

Jordan T. Bakhsh, Marijke Taks, and Milena M. Parent

Social value is the difference between monetized social impacts and related economic investments. Stimulating positive social value is a leading concern and focus for sport event stakeholders. However, insights on this socioeconomic phenomenon have concentrated on social or economic mechanisms, not both, and are siloed to host city residents, largely overlooking nonhost city residents central to events. Thus, we integrated social and economic mechanisms to examine host city and nonhost city residents’ mega sport event social value. Data from 1,880 Canadians revealed varying social values (Vancouver and Provincial = negative; Venue-City = neutral; National = positive). Applying a reverse contingent valuation method, findings confirmed the need to integrate (monetized) social and economic mechanisms to calculate social value. Testing an augmented social exchange theory model, findings highlight residents’ perceptual ambivalence to social impacts and the importance of income to estimate social value. Stakeholders should effectively leverage events for social impacts and reconsider event public funding allocation policies.

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Research Handbook on Sport and COVID-19

E. Su Jara-Pazmino

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The Strength of Community: The Role of Social Support Networks in Sport Officials’ Retention

Jacob K. Tingle, Brittany L. Jacobs, Matthew Katz, and Stacy Warner

Previous researchers have indicated that a sense of community and social support are vital to referee retention; however, little is known about the connection between specific characteristics of sports officials’ networks and retention. To better understand the sports officiating shortage, researchers explored the social support networks of 116 referees utilizing egocentric network analysis. The authors suggest that retention of sports officials depends on the interpersonal ties and network structures within which the referees are embedded. Specifically, resulting hierarchical models confirmed that retention relationships among officials are a multilevel phenomenon, and that outside communication and community were vital network characteristics that fostered retention relationships. Network size, tenure, and the officiating level also were significant when considering an official’s network and its impact on retention. Areas for future research and suggestions for referee managers are presented.

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Between Profit and Purpose: Employee Responses to Financial and Social Logics in Women’s Sport

Risa F. Isard, E. Nicole Melton, Elizabeth B. Delia, and Calvin Nite

Recent market growth in women’s sport has happened as fans increasingly support brands that embrace social issues, suggesting that women’s sport houses multiple logics (financial and social) that may be compatible. The purpose of this study is to explore employees’ perspectives of the logics in women’s sport and how these influence their workplace experiences. Using a case study design, we interviewed 15 women’s sport employees. We observed that they navigate both financial and social logics, which they see as compatible. This understanding of a complementary relationship has both behavioral (e.g., collaboration) and emotional (e.g., collective anxiety) consequences for employees. Notably, collective anxiety is simultaneously associated with negative effects and positive coping mechanisms, demonstrating its complexity in shaping individuals’ actions. This research advances understanding of how employees respond to multiple logics and the effects of this process. Insights from this study can help women’s sport managers better support workers.

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State-Level Politics and Bias Predict Transgender Athlete Bans

Kelsey M. Garrison and George B. Cunningham

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among the political leanings of a state, the state-level implicit and explicit biases against transgender people, and the presence of transgender athlete bans. The authors collected archival data from 2021 and 2022 bans in the United States to examine the hypotheses. As of 2022, 18 states had passed laws barring transgender athletes from participating in sports. Results from regression analyses showed that conservative-leaning states were more likely to enact transgender athlete bans than their peers. The relationship was mediated by explicit (but not implicit) bias toward transgender people. The findings have implications for research and practice. Sport managers have an opportunity to create transgender-inclusive workplaces for staff, coaches, and other managers. They should also work with campus counselors and other staff to ensure that transgender athletes have ample support.