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Erratum. A Qualitative Examination of Online Practices During the COVID-19 Pandemic and Observational Preferences Within Physical Education

Journal of Teaching in Physical Education

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The Role of Cost in Predicting Learning Outcomes in Physical Education: An Expectancy–Value–Cost Model

Bo Shen, Benzheng Li, and Jin Bo

Purpose: While the expectancy–value theory recognizes the significance of cost as an essential component, it has garnered minimal attention in physical education. Utilizing two separate datasets, we explored the degree to which the inclusion of cost in an expectancy–value–cost model could augment its predictive capability. Method: Study 1 utilized a cross-sectional data set (N = 144) to investigate the predictive roles of expectancy belief, task value, and cost on behavioral and emotional engagement. Study 2 employed a longitudinal data set (N = 251) to assess how these variables influenced the hypothetical choice of attending physical education and cardiorespiratory fitness. Results: Cost played a significant role in explaining additional variance, surpassing what could be predicted through expectancy and value. Specifically, cost emerged as a crucial factor in predicting emotional engagement, hypothetical choice, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Conclusion: Incorporating cost as an independent construct can yield valuable supplementary insights into the determinants of students’ learning.

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“PE Is More Than Playing Kick Ball the Entire Hour”: Using Standards-Based Grading to Elevate Physical Education’s Status Among Preservice Physical Educators

Matt Townsley and Scott W.T. McNamara

Purpose: This study sought to examine how preservice physical educators conceptualize and intend to use standards-based grading (SBG) after receiving a 1-hr workshop on implementing SBG into a physical education (PE) setting. Method s: Using a qualitative descriptive approach, the researchers utilized class reflection assignments, a perceptions survey, and interviews with 10 undergraduate physical educators at a Midwestern university. Findings: The SBG workshop positively influenced participants’ views of the importance of PE, enhanced their attitudes toward organized and meaningful instructional planning, and shaped participants’ perceived norms and level of control when implementing SBG in their future classrooms. Discussion/Conclusion: SBG provides a means for preservice physical educators to validate their field and area of study and to visualize the interconnectedness of teaching, learning, and assessment within PE.

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Martial Arts and Combat Sports for Youth: A 10-Year Scoping Review

Alba Iara Cae Rodrigues, Risto Marttinen, and Dominique Banville

Martial arts and combat sports (MA&CS) are lifelong nontraditional activities seldom available for youth in school settings. Research has found that MA&CS can promote a variety of benefits to youth with novel experiences that promote nonviolent, psychological, affective, cognitive, and physical outcomes. Objective: The objective of this scoping review was to identify and categorize the peer-reviewed research with a pedagogical focus on MA&CS for youth across 10 years. Methods: The key terms used related to MA&CS and young people. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses for scoping review guidelines and included peer-reviewed empirical articles from six databases in English and Portuguese from 2013 to 2022. Results: The Results section was divided into a quantitative description of the literature analyzed and a discussion of the psychological, social, affective, physical, cognitive, and academic benefits of MA&CS interventions. Conclusion: MA&CS interventions can provide multiple benefits for youth in physical education and out-of-school settings.

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Learning to Integrate STEM Into Physical Education Through Asynchronous Professional Development Modules

Risto Marttinen, Dominique Banville, Nancy Holincheck, Vernise June Ferrer Lindsay, and Stephanie Stehle

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to understand nine physical education (PE) teachers’ experiences with an asynchronous professional development module focused on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) integration, and the barriers they perceived to integrating STEM into PE. Methods: Semistructured interviews, pre- and post open-ended questionnaires, and discussion board posts were analyzed through a collaborative coding process. Trustworthiness was increased by using a peer debriefer, multiple coders, negative case checks, and data triangulation. Results: Four themes describe the experiences of PE teachers learning to integrate STEM into PE: teacher’s knowledge about technology and STEM, barriers to PE teachers in integrating STEM, “We’re already integrating STEM,” and issues in professional development. Discussion/Conclusion: STEM integration is possible if PE teachers are provided time and opportunities to work with content experts to learn STEM concepts and have STEM be a by-product of PE lessons rather than the sole focus of the lesson.

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Portrait of the Assessment Practices of Physical Education Teachers in Quebec: Reporting and Grading

David Bezeau and Audrey-Anne De Guise

Purpose: To gain a better understanding of the assessment practices currently implemented by Quebec physical education teachers regarding reporting and grading. Method: Exploratory mixed-methods study using semistructured interviews (n = 13), interviews to the double (n = 12), and a questionnaire (n = 164) with elementary and high school physical education teachers. Results: Participants use different strategies to report student performance. When grading, their strategy is to combine a mathematical approach with their professional judgment. They often consider all the marks taken during a learning and assessment situation and not only those taken at the end of it. Discussion/Conclusions: The main finding of this study is that teachers’ reporting and grading practices are subjective. We discuss how our results show the subjectivity in teachers’ practices and possible explanations for it, and then conclude by trying to understand how to make assessment in physical education more objective.

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Teaching a Physical Activity to a Young Child With Autism Using the Three-Tier Video Modeling Model: A Pilot Study

Shu-Chen Wang and Hui-Ting Wang

The Three-Tier Video Modeling intervention model was derived from the theory of Response to Intervention. This pilot study aimed to demonstrate the application of the Three-Tier Video Modeling model with a top-down approach in teaching physical activity to a 4-year-old boy with autism spectrum disorder and his typically developing peers. The study utilized a single case-changing conditions design and measured children’s performance in the target physical activity. The results showed that the boy with autism spectrum disorder acquired the target skill and consequently generalized it to the natural environment, and all peers mastered the skill after intervention. Teachers and parents also reported a more inclusive learning environment. The potential implications of this novel approach were discussed.

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Impact of Secondary Organizational Socialization on North American, Asian, and European Early Career Faculty Members’ Delivery of Physical Education Teacher Education

Meghan Dennis, Seungsoo Baek, Adam M. Wolecki, Wonhee Lee, Natalia D. Molska, R. Tanner Ryan, and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith

Purpose: To describe the impact of secondary organizational socialization on 10 early career faculty members’ (FMs) delivery of physical education teacher education (PETE). Method: The FMs worked in universities situated on three different continents. Data were collected with four qualitative techniques (formal interviews, written ideal PETE program, document analysis, and prerecorded film) and analyzed by using analytic induction and constant comparison. Findings: FMs delivered PETE that was a hybrid of the behavioristic, traditional/craft, critical-inquiry, and personalistic orientations to teacher education. The cultures and conditions in which FMs worked were mainly positive and favorable and aided them in delivering PETE. FMs coped with negative cultural elements and unfavorable conditions that constrained them through strategic compliance, strategic redefinition, or finding a new position. Conclusion: Findings were similar across continents and should help with efforts to improve the transition of neophyte FMs into the workplace.

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Perspectives on Inclusion in Physical Education From Faculty and Students at Three Physical Education Teacher Education Programs in Chile

Fabián Arroyo-Rojas and Samuel R. Hodge

Discourse about, and the preparation of teachers regarding, the inclusion of all students has been lacking in Latin America broadly, including Chile. The purpose of this study was to examine the perspectives of physical education teacher education (PETE) faculty members and undergraduate students on inclusion and social justice in Chile. Grounded in social constructionism, the research design of this qualitative inquiry was descriptive multiple case study. The 16 participants were PETE faculty—that is, two assistant professors and one adjunct faculty member (n = 3) and three heads of programs (n = 3)—as well as undergraduate students (n = 10) across three PETE programs in Chile. The primary data sources were 12 individual semistructured interviews with heads of the program and faculty and three focus group interviews with undergraduate students across programs. The qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis to draw on different themes capturing the perspectives on inclusion and social justice within the Chilean physical education curriculum. Findings were presented through themes and subthemes across PETE programs. Three major discussion themes are presented: (a) disability framed within a deficit model, (b) inclusion as an adapted pedagogical practice, and (c) inclusion as a rights-based model for equality of opportunities. We conclude, analytically, that a lack of critical critique of the deficit model of disability, adapted pedagogical practices alone, and sameness manifests forms of marginalization to students with disabilities in physical education.

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Physical Education Alternative Certification Programs: Learning Opportunities for Teacher Candidates

Jaehun Jung, Layne Case, Samuel W. Logan, and Joonkoo Yun

Purpose: This study investigated differences in (a) completion of teaching methods courses and (b) participation in professional development opportunities between alternatively and traditionally certified physical educators. Method: The sample included 1,850 physical educators (mean age: 42.7 years, male: 61.7%, female: 38.3%) from the 2017 to 2018 National Teacher and Principal Survey. Prevalence estimates of physical educators who (a) completed undergraduate or graduate teaching methods courses during their education and training and (b) participated in professional development were calculated. Results: The results of binary logistic regressions reveal that alternatively certified physical educators were less likely to complete various teaching methods courses before entering the teaching profession. In addition, there were no differences in participation in professional development except in instructional strategies for students with disabilities. Conclusion: Considering unprepared teachers tend to leave the profession early, alternative certification programs need to provide substantial levels of learning opportunities, including teaching methods courses.