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Erratum. Analyzing Dual-Task Paradigms to Improve Postconcussion Assessment and Management

Journal of Sport Rehabilitation

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Erratum. Effectiveness of Percutaneous Needle Electrolysis to Reduce Pain in Tendinopathies: A Systematic Review With Meta-Analysis

Journal of Sport Rehabilitation

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Volume 33 (2024): Issue 5 (Jul 2024)

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Field Hip Stability Isometric Test (F-HipSIT): Reliability of Assessing the Hip Posterolateral Muscle Strength in Sports Settings

Felipe Xavier de Lima e Silva, João Breno de Araujo Ribeiro-Alvares, Lucas de Souza Roberti, Matheus Pitrez Mocellin, and Bruno Manfredini Baroni

Context: The Hip Stability Isometric Test (HipSIT) is commonly employed in clinical settings for evaluating the hip posterolateral muscle strength. In this study, we introduced the “Field Hip Stability Isometric Test” (F-HipSIT) and assessed the intrarater and interrater reliability of this strength assessment specifically designed for sports settings. Design: Reliability study. Methods: Two independent raters (A and B) went to athletes’ training facilities to conduct 2 sessions of F-HipSIT spaced at least 1 week apart. The average peak force value from 3 valid attempts of each leg was recorded and normalized by the participant’s body mass for statistical analysis. Results: Thirty male and 30 female amateur athletes took part in this study. Rater A obtained similar values in the first (0.39 [0.05] and 0.44 [0.07] kg·f/kg) and second (0.39 [0.06] and 0.45 [0.07] kg·f/kg) testing days for men and women, respectively. Rater B also found similar values in the first (0.35 [0.06] and 0.42 [0.08] kg·f/kg) and second (0.36 [0.06] and 0.45 [0.08] kg·f/kg) testing days for men and women, respectively. Excellent intrarater intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values were found for men (ICC = .922) and women (ICC = .930), with coefficient of variation of 6% to 8% and minimal detectable change of 0.06 to 0.10 kg·f/kg. The F-HipSIT presented good interrater reliability for men (ICC = .857) and women (ICC = .868), with coefficient of variation of 5% and minimal detectable change of 0.05 to 0.06 kg·f/kg. Conclusion: The F-HipSIT intrarater and interrater reliability among male and female recreational athletes supports this field test as a quick and convenient screening tool to monitor hip posterolateral muscle strength in sports settings.

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Aerobic Exercise as an Intervention for Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Critically Appraised Topic

Makayla Florez, Erin Roberge, and Jennifer Ostrowski

Clinical Scenario: As of 2020, the lifetime prevalence of at least one self-reported concussion is 24.6%. Athletic trainers in all settings work with patients who are at risk of sustaining a concussion or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and developing persistent postconcussive symptoms. Aerobic exercise is emerging as an intervention for decreasing symptoms in patients who have sustained mTBI; however, the majority of research has been performed on pediatric patients. It is of interest whether aerobic exercise is an effective intervention for adult patients with mTBI. Focused Clinical Question: In adults who have sustained mTBI, does traditional therapy decrease symptoms more than aerobic exercise? Summary of Search: A systematic search of 4 databases was performed to answer this question. Three randomized controlled trials were identified that compared aerobic exercise to traditional therapy, which consists of physical and cognitive rest. Two studies found no significant differences in symptoms between the 2 groups while 1 study found decreased symptoms in the aerobic exercise group. Clinical Bottom Line: The current evidence is clear that there is no decrease in mTBI symptoms with traditional therapy as compared with aerobic exercise, with 1 study showing decreased symptoms with aerobic exercise. Strength of Evidence: Based on the Center for Evidence-Based Medicine grades of evidence, the clinical bottom line is based on grade A evidence.

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Analyzing Dual-Task Paradigms to Improve Postconcussion Assessment and Management

Diana Robertson, Landon B. Lempke, and Robert C. Lynall

Context: Dual-task (simultaneous cognitive–motor activities) assessments have been adapted into reliable and valid clinical concussion measures. However, abundant motor and cognitive variations leave researchers and clinicians uncertain about which combinations elicit the intended dual-task effect. Our objective was to examine differences between commonly employed dual-task motor and cognitive combinations among healthy, college-aged individuals. Design: Cross-sectional laboratory study. Methods: Twenty participants (age: 21.3 [2.4] y; height: 176.0 [9.1] cm; mass: 76.0 [16.4] kg; 20% with concussion history) completed 4 motor tasks (gait, tandem gait, single-leg balance, and tandem balance) under 5 cognitive conditions (single task, subtraction, month reversal, spelling backward, and visual Stroop) in a research laboratory. The motor performance outcomes were spatiotemporal variables for gait and tandem gait and center of pressure path length (in centimeters) for single-leg and tandem balance. Cognitive outcomes were response rate (responses/second) and cognitive accuracy. We used separate repeated-measures analyses of variance for each motor and cognitive outcome with post hoc Tukey t tests. Results: Gait velocity, gait stride length, and tandem gait velocity demonstrated significant cognitive–motor interactions (P’s < .001) such that all dual-task conditions resulted in varyingly slower or shorter movement than single task. Conversely, single-leg balance (P = .627) and tandem balance (P = .434) center of pressure path length did not significantly differ among the dual-task cognitive conditions or relative to single task. Statistically significant cognitive–motor interactions were observed only for spelling backward accuracy (P = .004) and response rates for spelling backward, month reversal, and visual Stroop (P’s < .001) such that worse accuracy, but faster response rates, occurred during motor tasks. Conclusions: Gait and tandem gait motor tasks accompanied with spelling backward or subtraction cognitive tasks demonstrated consistently strong dual-task effects and, therefore, may be the best suited for clinical and research use following concussion.

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Effectiveness of Percutaneous Needle Electrolysis to Reduce Pain in Tendinopathies: A Systematic Review With Meta-Analysis

Matheus Hissa Lourenço Ferreira, Guilherme Augusto Santos Araujo, and Blanca De-La-Cruz-Torres

Context: Tendon injuries are common disorders in both workers and athletes, potentially impacting performance in both conditions. This is why the search for effective treatments is continuing. Objective(s): The objective of this study was to analyze whether the ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle electrolysis technique may be considered a procedure to reduce pain caused by tendinosis. Evidence Acquisition: The search strategy included the PubMed, SCOPUS, CINAHL, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, SciELO, and ScienceDirect up to the date of February 25, 2024. Randomized clinical trials that assessed pain caused by tendinosis using the Visual Analog Scale and Numeric Rating Scale were included. The studies were evaluated for quality using the Cochrane Risk of Bias 2, and the evidence strength was assessed by the GRADEpro GDT. Evidence Synthesis: Out of the 534 studies found, 8 were included in the review. A random-effects meta-analysis and standardized mean differences (SMD) were conducted. The ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle electrolysis proved to be effective in reducing pain caused by tendinosis in the overall outcome (SMD = −0.97; 95% CI, −1.26 to −0.68; I 2  = 58%; low certainty of evidence) and in the short-term (SMD = −0.83, 95% CI, −1.29 to −0.38; I 2  = 65%; low certainty of evidence), midterm (SMD = −1.28; 95% CI, −1.65 to −0.91; I 2  = 0%; moderate certainty of evidence), and long-term (SMD = −0.94; 95% CI, −1.62 to −0.26; I 2  = 71%; low certainty of evidence) subgroups. Conclusion(s): The application of the ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle electrolysis technique for reducing pain caused by tendinosis appears to be effective. However, due to the heterogeneity found (partially explained), more studies are needed to define the appropriate dosimetry, specific populations that may benefit more from the technique, and possible adverse events.

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Feasibility and Preliminary Effectiveness of an Online Meditation Intervention in Young Adults With Concussion History

Christine E. Callahan, Kyla Z. Donnelly, Susan A. Gaylord, Keturah R. Faurot, J.D. DeFreese, Adam W. Kiefer, and Johna K. Register-Mihalik

Context: Mindfulness interventions (yoga, meditation) in traumatic brain injury populations show promising improvements in injury outcomes. However, most studies include all injury severities and use in-person, general programming lacking accessibility and specificity to the nuance of concussion. Therefore, this study investigated the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of an online, concussion-focused meditation intervention among young adults with a concussion history. Design: Unblinded, single-arm, pilot intervention. Methods: Fifteen young adults aged 18 to 30 with a concussion history within the past 5 years completed 10 to 20 minutes per day of online, guided meditations for 6 weeks. Feasibility was assessed using the Feasibility of Intervention Measure. Concussion symptoms were measured using the Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptom Questionnaire, perceived stress the Perceived Stress Scale-10, and mindfulness the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. Descriptive statistics described the study sample and determined intervention adherence and feasibility. Paired sample t tests were used to examine preintervention/postintervention changes in concussion symptoms, perceived stress, and mindfulness, with descriptive statistics further detailing significant t tests. Results: Fifteen participants were enrolled, and 12 completed the intervention. The majority completed 5+ days per week of the meditations, and Feasibility of Intervention Measure (17.4 [1.8]) scores indicated high feasibility. Concussion symptom severity significantly decreased after completing the meditation intervention (11.3 [10.3]) compared with before the intervention (24.5 [17.2]; t[11] = 3.0, P = .01). The number of concussion symptoms reported as worse than before their concussion significantly decreased after completing the meditation intervention (2.7 [3.9]) compared with before the intervention (8.0 [5.7]; t[11] = 3.7, P = .004). Postintervention, 83.33% (n = 10) reported lower concussion symptom severity, and 75.00% (n = 9) reported less concussion symptoms as a mild, moderate, or severe problem (ie, worse than before injury). Conclusions: Findings suggest positive adherence and feasibility of the meditation intervention, with the majority reporting concussion symptom improvement postintervention. Future research is necessary to expand these pilot findings into a large trial investigating concussion-specific meditation programming.

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Role of the Flexion Relaxation Phenomenon in the Analysis of Low Back Pain Risk in the Powerlifter: A Proof-of-Principle Study

Nicola Marotta, Alessandro de Sire, Isabella Bartalotta, Maria Sgro, Roberta Zito, Marco Invernizzi, Antonio Ammendolia, and Teresa Iona

Introduction: Unlike the most common training approaches for bodybuilding, powerlifting programs are generally based on maximum and submaximal loads, putting enormous stresses on the lumbar spine. The flexion relaxation phenomenon evaluation is a clinical tool used for low back pain (LBP) assessment. This study aimed to evaluate the role of the flexion relaxation phenomenon in the analysis of LBP in the powerlifters. Methods: Healthy professional powerlifters participated in the study. In fact, we divided the participants into a LBP-low-risk group and a LBP-high-risk group, based on a prior history of LBP. Outcome measures included flexion relaxation ratio (FRR) and trough surface electromyography collected during trunk maximum voluntary flexion; furthermore, during a bench press lifting, we measured the height of the arched back (ARCH), using a camera and the Kinovea video editing software, to consider a potential correlation with the risk of LBP. Results: We included a group of 18 male (aged 24–39 y) powerlifters of 93 kg category. We measured a nonsignificant mean difference of ARCH between low-risk LBP group and high-risk LBP subjects. Curiously, maximum voluntary flexions were both above the threshold of 3.2 μV; therefore, with an absence of appropriate myoelectric silence, on the contrary, the FRR ratios were higher than 9.5, considering the presence of the phenomenon, exclusively for the low-risk group. The lumbar arched back measurement data did not report any association with the LBP risk, regarding the maximum voluntary flexion value, and even more than the FRR there is a relationship with the presence or the absence of LBP risk. Conclusions: FRR could be considered as a useful parameter for studying the risk of LBP in powerlifting. The FRR index not only refers to the possible myoelectric silence of the lumbar muscles in trunk maximum forward flexion but also takes into account the energy value delivered by the lumbar muscles during the flexion. Furthermore, we can indicate that the size of the powerlifter ARCH may not be a determining factor in the occurrence of LBP.

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Voluntary Contraction of the Abdominal Muscles Increases Hip Muscle Activation During Lower-Extremity Exercises: A Critically Appraised Topic

Birgul Dingirdan, Pinar Kuyulu, Ezgi Nur Can, Kubra Caylan Gurses, and Gulcan Harput

Clinical Scenario: Existing studies have posited that incorporating abdominal enhancement techniques during lower-extremity exercises might mitigate compensatory pelvic motions and enhance the engagement of specific hip muscles. Clinical Question: Does performing lower-extremity exercises with abdominal enhancement techniques increase hip muscle activation levels in healthy individuals? Summary of Key Finding: After the literature review, 4 cross-sectional studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this critically appraised topic. Clinical Bottom Line: There is moderate evidence to support that prone hip extension with abdominal enhancement may increase gluteus maximus and hamstring muscle activity. Gluteus medius activity may not be affected by abdominal enhancement during hip abduction exercises. Strength and Recommendation: The collective findings from the 4 cross-sectional trials indicate that the incorporation of abdominal enhancement techniques during lower-extremity exercises may have the potential to enhance targeted muscle activation levels in healthy individuals. Further research is recommended to establish more robust conclusions.