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Do Motor–Cognitive and Motor–Motor Dual-Task Training Differently Affect Dual-Task Interference in Individuals With Intellectual Disability?

Rihab Borji, Rym Baccouch, Rabeb Laatar, Sirine Falhi, Sonia Sahli, and Haithem Rebai

This study explored the effect of different dual-task (DT) training programs on DT interference in adults with intellectual disability. Center-of-pressure (CoP) mean velocity in single-task (ST) and cognitive-DT conditions and the Timed Up-and-Go Test (TUGT) during ST, cognitive-DT, and motor-DT conditions were assessed before and after intervention in a cognitive–motor training group, a motor–motor training group, and a control group. Before training, CoP mean velocity and TUGT time increased (p < .001) in DT compared with the ST condition. After training, the CoP mean velocity values remained unchanged (p = .07) in DT compared with the ST condition among the cognitive–motor training group. Furthermore, compared with the ST condition, no increase (p = 1) was reported in the TUGT time during the cognitive-DT condition for the cognitive–motor training group and during the motor-DT for the motor–motor training group (p = .12). The effect of DT training on DT interference depends on the training modality.

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Evaluating the Validity of Tests to Predict Sprint and Change of Direction Speed in Para-Athletes With Brain Impairments

Raul Reina, Emma M. Beckman, Mark J. Connick, Jemima G. Spathis, and Sean M. Tweedy

Maximum running speed is a performance determinant in para-athletics and cerebral palsy football. Sixty international para-athletes with brain impairments completed five activity-limitation tests (standing broad jump, four bounds for distance, split jumps, 10-m speed skip, and running in place) and two criterion tests (40-m sprint and modified agility test). The same three tests (standing broad jump, four bounds for distance, and 10-m speed skip) that correlated with running performance in nondisabled runners (.67 < r < −.82; p < .05; 75% of variance) also correlated in para-athletes with brain impairments (.41 < r <  −.62; p < .01; 55% of variance). Standing broad jump, four bounds for distance, split jumps, and running in place also correlated with change-of-direction speed (.43 < r <  −.63; p < .01; 58% of variance). Results indicate that methods of classification for para-athletics with nondisabled runners are also valid with para-athletes with brain impairments, and new sport-specific relationships were found for assessing the performance of rapid and short sprints toward different directions, specific of a team para-sport like cerebral palsy football.

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Introducing IJSPP’s First Reviewer Incentive: A Submission-Fee Waiver

Dionne A. Noordhof and Øyvind Sandbakk

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Volume 41 (2024): Issue 3 (Jul 2024)

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Volume 34 (2024): Issue 4 (Jul 2024)

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Volume 19 (2024): Issue 7 (Jul 2024)

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“I Found Comfort in Exercising”: Exploring Experiences With Exercise for Adults With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Anusha V. Ramji, Eleanor J. Dommett, and Oliver R. Runswick

Little is known about how adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience exercise, resulting in a lack of recommendations for supporting this population. We aimed to explore how adults with ADHD experience exercise as a management tool before and after diagnosis and how and why individuals experience issues related to exercise dependence. Fifteen active adults with a diagnosis of ADHD participated in semistructured interviews. Three overarching themes were identified: (a) exercise as a necessity for ADHD, reflecting the need to exercise before a formal ADHD diagnosis, and use of exercise as a management tool postdiagnosis; (b) goals and achievements to live by, reflecting how exercise patterns revolved around a need to make progress toward targets; and (c) activity or exercise: a roller coaster journey, covering the ups and downs of exercise journeys. This article highlights the importance of exercise for adults to manage ADHD and how this can be encouraged and supported.

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Standing on the Shoulders of Giants: Essential Papers in Sports and Exercise Physiology

Jos J. de Koning and Carl Foster

Purpose: The purpose of this survey was to create a list of essential historical and contemporary readings for undergraduate and graduate students in the field of exercise physiology. Methods: Fifty-two exercise physiologists/sport scientists served as referees, and each nominated ∼25 papers for inclusion in the list. In total, 396 papers were nominated by the referees. This list was then sent back to the referees, with the instructions to nominate the “100 essential papers in sports and exercise physiology.” Results: The referees cast 4722 votes. The 100 papers with the highest number of votes received 51% (2406) of the total number of votes. A total of 37 papers in the list of “100 essential papers” were published >50 years ago, and 63 papers were published since 1973. Conclusions: This list of essential studies will provide a perspective on contemporary studies, the “giant’s shoulders” to enable young scholars to “see further” or to understand where they have “come from.” This compilation is also meant to impress on students that, given the (lack of) technology available in the past, some of the early science required enormous intuitive leaps on the part of historical scientists.

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An Opinion on the Interpretation of Bone Turnover Markers Following Acute Exercise or Nutrition Intervention and Considerations for Applied Research

Mark J. Hutson and Ian Varley

It is important for athlete and public health that we continue to develop our understanding of the effects of exercise and nutrition on bone health. Bone turnover markers (BTMs) offer an opportunity to accelerate the progression of bone research by revealing a bone response to exercise and nutrition stimuli far more rapidly than current bone imaging techniques. However, the association between short-term change in the concentration of BTMs and long-term bone health remains ambiguous. Several other limitations also complicate the translation of acute BTM data to applied practice. Importantly, several incongruencies exist between the effects of exercise and nutrition stimuli on short-term change in BTM concentration compared with long-term bone structural outcomes to similar stimuli. There are many potential explanations for these inconsistencies, including that short-term study designs fail to encompass a full remodeling cycle. The current article presents the opinion that data from relatively acute studies measuring BTMs may not be able to reliably inform applied practice aiming to optimize bone health. There are important factors to consider when interpreting or translating BTM data and these are discussed.

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Caffeine Gum Improves Reaction Time but Reduces Composure Versus Placebo During the Extra-Time Period of Simulated Soccer Match-Play in Male Semiprofessional Players

Adam Field, Liam Corr, Laurence Birdsey, Christina Langley, Ben Marshall, Greg Wood, Mark Hearris, Diogo Martinho, Christa Carbry, Robert Naughton, James Fleming, Magni Mohr, Peter Krustrup, Mark Russell, and Liam David Harper

This study aimed to determine whether caffeine gum influenced perceptual-cognitive and physical performance during the extra-time period of simulated soccer match-play. Semiprofessional male soccer players (n = 12, age: 22 ± 3 years, stature: 1.78 ± 0.06 m, mass: 75 ± 9 kg) performed 120-min soccer-specific exercise on two occasions. In a triple-blind, randomized, crossover design, players chewed caffeinated (200 mg; caffeine) or control (0 mg; placebo) gum for 5 min following 90 min of soccer-specific exercise. Perceptual-cognitive skills (i.e., passing accuracy, reaction time, composure, and adaptability) were assessed using a soccer-specific virtual reality simulator, collected pre- and posttrial. Neuromuscular performance (reactive-strength index, vertical jump height, absolute and relative peak power output, and negative vertical displacement) and sprint performance (15 and 30 m) were measured at pretrial, half-time, 90 min, and posttrial. Caffeine gum attenuated declines in reaction time (pre: 90.8 ± 0.8 AU to post: 90.7 ± 0.8 AU) by a further 4.2% than placebo (pre: 92.1 ± 0.8 AU to post: 88.2 ± 0.8 AU; p < .01). Caffeine gum reduced composure by 4.7% (pre: 69.1 ± 0.8 AU to post: 65.9 ± 0.8 AU) versus placebo (pre: 68.8 ± 0.8 AU to post: 68.3 ± 0.8 AU; p < .01). Caffeine gum did not influence any other variables (p > .05). Where caffeine gum is consumed by players prior to extra-time, reaction time increases but composure may be compromised, and neuromuscular and sprint performance remain unchanged. Future work should assess caffeine gum mixes with substances like L-theanine that promote a relaxed state under stressful conditions.