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A Typology of Circular Sport Business Models: Enabling Sustainable Value Co-Creation in the Sport Industry

Anna Gerke, Julia Fehrer, Maureen Benson-Rea, and Brian P. McCullough

There is a continuing interest in the relationship between sport and nature. As a new field, sport ecology explores the impact sport has on the natural environment and how sport organizations and individuals can promote sustainability. However, a critical element is still missing in the sport ecology discourse—the link between organizations’ sustainability efforts and their value co-creation processes. The circular economy can provide this link by decoupling the value co-creation of sport business models from their environmental impact and resource depletion. Based on an extensive literature review, this study provides a new theoretically derived typology of circular sport business models, including comprehensive reasoning about sustainable value co-creation processes in the sport industry. It explains how sport managers of all three sectors—for-profit, public, and nonprofit—can transition toward more sustainable and circular business practices and offer integrative guidelines for future research.

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Progress of Female Athlete Representation in Research Influencing International Conference on Concussion in Sport Consensus Statements: An Evidence Review

Sydney Asselstine, Jason Krystofiak, Michelle Gorbonosov, and Diana Toto

We aimed to quantify the representation of female athletes in research informing the fifth (Berlin 2016) and sixth (Amsterdam 2022) International Conference on Concussion in Sport consensus statements and analyze trends in progress between the statements. We identified all original research analyzed in each systematic review influencing the consensus statements and determined the percentage of female subjects for each study. Twenty-two systematic reviews and 1,161 original studies were reviewed (572 studies from Berlin 2016 and 1,089 from Amsterdam 2022). Both statements underrepresented females; however, there were significantly fewer studies with no female subjects in the 2022 statement, and more studies with a near equivalent (40%–60%) representation of females. While female athletes are still underrepresented within original research influencing international consensus statements, improvements are evident. We recommend a continued emphasis on female athlete representation and suggest a female-focused component of upcoming statements along with involvement from female predominant sponsoring associations.

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Fostering Motivation in Physical Education to Promote Learning and Achievement

Senlin Chen and Melinda Solmon

Research exploring motivation has yielded a robust body of evidence to guide efforts to improve teaching and learning in physical education (PE). We begin by defining motivation and achievement within the context of PE. Given the extensive and diverse motivational perspectives, we purposely selected three widely studied theories in PE, achievement goal theory, self-determination theory, and interest theory, as the focus of our review. These theories have guided many investigations and the development of pedagogical practice over the past 3 decades. We elaborate on these theories and then synthesize recently published intervention studies to provide an interpretive analysis of the literature. This analysis has enabled us to identify gaps that need to be addressed in future research and efforts to improve practice. We conclude with the proposition calling for innovative, theory-driven, evidence-based research and practice to foster adaptive student motivation for optimal educational, behavioral, and health outcomes in K–12 PE.

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Application of Natural Language Processing to the Development of Sports Biomechanics in China: A Literature Review of Journal Abstracts in Chinese Between 1980 and 2022

Guoying Zhang and Yifang Fan

This paper aims to explore the field of sports biomechanics in China between 1980 and 2022 in terms of key developments, hot research topics, integration with other disciplines in kinesiology, and future trends by using text mining and natural language processing to analyze abstracts published in Chinese journals. Over 1,400 research paper abstracts were selected and processed, focusing on specific terms, significance, word-cloud analysis, co-occurrence, and network analysis. Results showed that sports biomechanics research focused on sports technical analysis, application of sports biomechanical principles to athletic training, and sport-injury prevention and rehabilitation. The research areas are multidimensional but well balanced with other disciplines such as physical education, sports training, and motor skill acquisition. Integration with fields like biomedical engineering, computer software and applications, and medical aspects of specific environments suggesting sports biomechanics has a promising future as it continues to develop as a discipline interwoven with other disciplines.

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“Doing What’s Best for Me”: A Cultural Values Comparison of Social Media Responses to Kyrie Irving’s COVID-19 Vaccination Status

Sitong Guo, Andrew C. Billings, Joshua R. Jackson, and Suyu Chou

In October 2021, National Basketball Association player Kyrie Irving was banned from competing for the Brooklyn Nets because of his resistance to being vaccinated for COVID-19. Two months later, the Nets softened that stance and allowed Irving to participate in road games. This study examines two prongs of the social media response to Irving’s vaccination status. A total of 12,000 posts were collected from the U.S.-based Twitter (now known as X; 6,000) and the Chinese-based Weibo (6,000), covering the first week of coverage of Irving and the Nets’ announcement. Results showed that Hofstede’s cultural dimensions help explain the theme differences, with Twitter’s comments reflecting more individualistic notions and lower power distance than Weibo. Moreover, Twitter users focused more on opinion-based expression themes, while Weibo users avoided commenting on the COVID-19 policy. These findings contribute to the literature by identifying the role culture plays in people’s response to a social issue.

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Volume 13 (2024): Issue 1 (Feb 2024): Proceedings of the National Academy of Kinesiology’s 2023 Meeting: Honoring the Past, Celebrating the Present, and Embracing the Future

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Unpacking Pedagogical Content Knowledge in Physical Education: What We Know and Do Not Know

Phillip Ward and Insook Kim

Pedagogical content knowledge is an incredibly useful construct to examine teaching and to design teacher education for preservice and continuing education settings. Although it has been central to discussions of teaching effectiveness since Shulman first proposed it in 1986, pedagogical content knowledge has been subject to considerable criticism and elaboration since then. In this paper, we discuss the research on pedagogical content knowledge in physical education, criticisms, and how it has been shaped by those criticisms. We examine pedagogical content knowledge beyond the traditional focus of pedagogy and content, discussing the role of knowledge of students, context, and curriculum as influences on pedagogical content knowledge. In doing so, we identify the strengths and weaknesses of the literature and propose directions for future research.

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Motivations, Barriers, and Supports: An Examination of the Experiences of Women of Color Recreational Sport Coaches

Eric Legg and Rebecca Varney

Coaches play an instrumental role in the experiences of youth sport participants. Though girls participate in youth sport at similar rates as boys, coaching positions continue to be dominated by men. Existing research supports the value of diverse role models, especially for culturally diverse youth, and women coaches of color are especially important in sport given the low participation rates of ethnocultural minorities. Given the importance of diverse role models as sport coaches, this study investigates the experiences of women of color who coach sport at the recreational level. Based on interviews with 14 individuals, and grounded in socioecological theory, our findings describe the experience of research participants at each level (individual, interpersonal, organizational, and sociocultural) with a focus on the entry experience, barriers, and supports. Findings suggest that gendered and racial norms influence experiences across the model, and further lead to practical implications for sport managers.

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Transformative Social and Emotional Learning in Physical Education

Michael A. Hemphill and Paul M. Wright

In this article, the authors examine the idea of social and emotional learning (SEL) and discuss ways it can contribute to a favorable future for physical education. While physical education has a long history and best practices aligned with this initiative, there is certainly room to improve. Not only can practitioners be more intentional and explicit in the ways SEL is promoted, a favorable future for physical education would involve a transformative approach that helps students develop SEL skills while also addressing institutional and systemic barriers that limit opportunities for social and emotional development. As the authors explain, transformative SEL in physical education would be characterized by student empowerment, culturally responsive teaching, and students applying these lessons in other settings for the betterment of themselves and society. The article concludes with a discussion of what it would take to move in this direction with regard to theory, policy, research, and practice.

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Media Framing of Athletic Department Major Infractions: A 5-Year Review of Historically Black Colleges and Universities

Tyler A. Williams and Beth A. Cianfrone

Media coverage of Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) often focuses excessively on challenges and deficits, influencing public perceptions, but there is little research on media portrayals of HBCU infractions. This study delves into the portrayal of Division I HBCU infractions from 2016 to 2020 through a textual analysis of 60 article headlines from local, regional, and national newspapers. The research examines general framing strategies, temporal changes, specific frames, prominent themes, and attribution of responsibility. Results indicate that the media often frames these infractions episodically rather than thematically over the 5-year span, with limited case details. The headlines emphasized specific issues of reprimand and redemption, often holding the organization accountable. Newspapers contribute to public opinion on athletic infractions by presenting these incidents in an engaging narrative. This study highlights the need for a more nuanced understanding of how media shapes perceptions of HBCUs, especially in the context of athletic infractions.