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The Use of Reference Values for the Timed Up and Go Test Applied in Multiple Scenarios?

Caroline Oliveira Gois, Alana Lalucha de Andrade Guimarães, Miburge Bolívar Gois Júnior, and Vitor Oliveira Carvalho

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Are Barriers to Physical Activity Associated With Changing Physical Activity Levels and Sedentary Time in Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease? A Longitudinal Study

Juliane Carolina da Silva Santos, Raphael Mendes Ritti-Dias, Gabriel Grizzo Cucato, Nelson Wolosker, Marilia de Almeida Correia, and Breno Quintella Farah

The aims of the current study were to analyze the association between the barriers to and changes in physical activity levels and sedentary behavior, as well as to examine whether these barriers change over time in patients with peripheral artery disease. In this longitudinal study, we assessed 72 patients (68% men; 65.7 ± 9.2 years). Physical activity was measured over a 7-day period using an accelerometer, and data were collected on time spent in sedentary activities, low-light physical activities, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activities. Personal and environmental barriers to physical activity were collected using yes or no questions. Assessments were repeated in the same patients after 27 months (95% confidence interval [26, 28] months). Most barriers remained stable in these patients; however, those who reported lack of money experienced an increase in sedentary behavior (β = 392.9 [159.7] min/week, p = .02) and a decrease in low-light physical activity (β = −372.4 [140.1] min/week, p = .02). These findings suggest that patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease typically exhibit stable barriers over time, and individuals reporting lack of money demonstrated a decrease in low-light physical activity and an increase in sedentary behavior after 27 months.

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Interventions Based on Behavior Change Techniques to Encourage Physical Activity or Decrease Sedentary Behavior in Community-Dwelling Adults Aged 50–70: Systematic Review With Intervention Component Analysis

Saima Ahmed, Kimberly Lazo Green, Lisa McGarrigle, Annemarie Money, Neil Pendleton, and Chris Todd

Increasing physical activity (PA) and/or decreasing sedentary behaviors is important in the delay and prevention of long-term conditions. PA can help maintain function and independence and decrease the need for hospitalization/institutionalization. Activity rates often decline in later life resulting in a need for interventions that encourage uptake and adherence through the use of Behavior Change Techniques (BCTs). We conducted a systematic review of the evidence for interventions that included BCTs in community-dwelling adults with a mean age of 50–70. The review followed PRISMA guidelines. The interventions were psychosocial, nonpharmacological, and noninvasive interventions utilizing components based on BCTs that evaluated change in PA and/or sedentary behavior. Intervention Component Analysis (ICA) was used to synthesize effectiveness of intervention components. Twelve randomized controlled trials were included in this review. The mean sample age was 50–64. Thirteen BCTs were used across all studies, and the most commonly used techniques were goals and planning, feedback and monitoring, and natural consequences. Seven intervention components linked with BCTs were found: personalized goal setting, tailored feedback from facilitators, on-site and postintervention support, education materials and resources, reinforcing change on behavior and attitudes, self-reported monitoring, and social connectedness. All components, except for social connectedness, were associated with improved health behavior and PA levels. The interventions that use BCTs have incorporated strategies that reinforce change in behavior and attitudes toward PA.

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Erratum. Perceived Constraints to Pickleball Participation Among Black Older Adults

Journal of Aging and Physical Activity

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Prepandemic Feasibility of Tele-Exercise as an Alternative Delivery Mode for an Evidence-Based, Tai Ji Quan Fall-Prevention Intervention for Older Adults

Dina L. Jones, Maura Robinson, Terry Kit Selfe, Lucinda Barnes, McKinzey Dierkes, Samantha Shawley-Brzoska, Douglas J. Myers, and Sara Wilcox

There is a critical need for fall-prevention interventions to reach medically underserved, hard-to-reach, rural older adults. The evidence-based Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance (TJQMBB) program reduces falls in older adults. This pre-COVID-19 pandemic study assessed the feasibility and impact of a 16-week tele-TJQMBB intervention in older adults. Instructors led six tele-TJQMBB classes via Zoom for 52 older adults (mean age ± SD 68.5 ± 7.7 years) at one academic and four community sites. Nearly all (97%) planned sessions were delivered. Average attendance was 61%. There were no adverse events. Fidelity was fair to good (mean 67%). Forty-one percent of sessions experienced technical disruptions. Participants improved their gait speed, balance, lower-extremity strength, and body mass index. Tele-TJQMBB was feasible with a positive impact on outcomes. This study was the first step toward establishing an additional delivery mode that could potentially expand TJQMBB’s reach and maintenance.

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Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Their Predictors Among Nursing Home Residents—Cross-Sectional Results of the BaSAlt Study

Rebekka Pomiersky, Leon Matting, Daniel Haigis, Gerhard W. Eschweiler, Annika Frahsa, Andreas Niess, Ansgar Thiel, and Gordon Sudeck

Little is known about physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) among nursing home residents although PA is known as a health promoter. This study examined PA, SB, and their predictors among nursing home residents (n = 63). Dependent variables were accelerometry-based PA and SB. Predictor variables included in a path analysis were age, sex, body mass index, Barthel Index, cognitive status (Mini-Mental State Examination), physical performance (hand grip strength and habitual walking speed), and well-being (World Health Organization-5 well-being index). PA was very low (M steps per day = 2,433) and SB was high (M percentage of sedentary time = 89.4%). PA was significantly predicted by age (β = −0.27, p = .008), body mass index (β = −0.29, p = .002), Barthel Index (β = 0.24, p = .040), and hand grip strength (β = 0.30, p = .048). SB was significantly predicted by body mass index (β = 0.27, p = .008) and Barthel Index (β = −0.30, p = .012). Results might be helpful for everyday practice to identify individuals at high risk for low PA and high SB.

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Volume 32 (2024): Issue 2 (Apr 2024)

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Daily Pain Severity but Not Vertebral Fractures Is Associated With Lower Physical Activity in Postmenopausal Women With Back Pain

Gallin Montgomery, Jon H. Tobias, Zoe Paskins, Tarnjit K. Khera, Cameron J. Huggins, Sarah J. Allison, Daniel Abasolo, Emma M. Clark, and Alex Ireland

Back pain lifetime incidence is 60%–70%, while 12%–20% of older women have vertebral fractures (VFs), often with back pain. We aimed to provide objective evidence, currently lacking, regarding whether back pain and VFs affect physical activity (PA). We recruited 69 women with recent back pain (age 74.5 ± 5.4 years). Low- (0.5 < g < 1.0), medium- (1.0 ≤ g < 1.5), and high-impact (g ≥ 1.5) PA and walking time were measured (100 Hz for 7 days, hip-worn accelerometer). Linear mixed-effects models assessed associations between self-reported pain and PA, and group differences (VFs from spine radiographs/no-VF) in PA. Higher daily pain was associated with reduced low (β = −0.12, 95% confidence interval, [−0.22, −0.03], p = .013) and medium-impact PA (β = −0.11, 95% confidence interval, [−0.21, −0.01], p = .041), but not high-impact PA or walking time (p > .11). VFs were not associated with PA (all p > .2). Higher daily pain levels but not VFs were associated with reduced low- and medium-impact PA, which could increase sarcopenia and falls risk in older women with back pain.

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Dual- and Single-Task Training in Older Adults With Age-Related Hearing Loss: A Randomized Controlled Study

Hande Usta Ozdemir, Ali Kitis, and Fazıl Necdet Ardıc

We aimed to investigate the effects of dual- and single-task training in older adults with age-related hearing loss. Intervention groups included single-, dual-task training, and control groups. The dual- and single-task trainings were held 2 days a week for 40 min for a total of 10 sessions for 5 weeks. We evaluated physical, cognitive, and auditory functions, quality-of-life, balance, concerns about falling, independence in activities of daily living, and dual-task performance. A total of 42 patients fully participated in this study. Statistically significant differences were observed in chair stand, chair sit-and-reach, global cognitive function, and delayed recall between the intervention groups and control group (p < .05). There was no statistically significant difference in quality-of-life, balance, falling concerns, independence in activities of daily living, and dual-task performance between all groups (p > .05). In conclusion, single- and dual-task training had a positive effect on physical and cognitive functioning in older adults with age-related hearing loss.

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Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Executive and Memory Functions in Patients With Alzheimer’s Disease: A Systematic Review

Qiaoyou Luo, Zuguo Tian, Yuting Hu, and Chaochao Wang

Background: Alzheimer’s disease threatens the health of older adults, particularly by disrupting executive and memory functions, and many studies have shown that aerobic exercise prevents and improves the symptoms associated with the disease. Objective: The objective was to systematically review the effects of aerobic exercise on executive and memory functions in patients with Alzheimer’s disease and to determine the effect factors and mechanisms of the design of aerobic exercise intervention programs. Method: Relevant literature was searched in three databases (PubMed, Web of Science, and EBSCO) from January 1, 2014 to March 1, 2023, using a subject-word search method. Data on 10 items, including author and country, were extracted from the literature after screening. The quality of the literature was evaluated using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale, and a systematic review was performed. Results: Twelve papers from seven countries were ultimately included, embodying 11 randomized controlled trials and one study with a repeated-measures design. The overall quality of the studies was good as 657 study participants, aged 45 years and older who had varying degrees of Alzheimer’s disease and significant symptoms, were included. Aerobic exercise was found to have a significant positive impact on executive and memory functions in people with Alzheimer’s disease. Conclusion: The effects of aerobic exercise on aspects of executive function were mainly characterized by improvements in inhibitory control, working memory, and cognitive flexibility, whereas the effects on aspects of memory function were mainly characterized by improvements in logical memory, situational memory, and short-term memory.