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Inhibition of Ironic Errors and Facilitation of Overcompensation Errors Under Pressure: An Investigation Including Perceived Weakness

Hiroki Nakamoto, Shoya Hashimoto, Mio Kamei, Munenori Murata, Sachi Ikudome, Kenta Karakida, and Yoshifumi Tanaka

The conflicting predictions of ironic process theory and the implicit overcompensation hypothesis have been presented as a framework to explain the characteristics of errors that occur when a certain behavior is prohibited. The former predicts that instructions prohibiting a particular behavior will increase the likelihood of an outcome that should be avoided (ironic error), whereas the latter predicts that the likelihood of an outcome opposite of that to be avoided (overcompensation error) will increase. We examined how these errors, which negatively affect performance, are influenced by pressure and perceived weakness. Participants performed a tennis-stroke task, aiming to hit a ball toward a target zone while avoiding a discouraged zone. The results indicate that pressure decreases the ironic errors but increases the overcompensation errors that occur when a particular behavior is discouraged, while an increase in perceived weakness induces random errors.

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A Pilot Randomized Trial of Combined Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Exercise Training Versus Exercise Training Alone for the Management of Chronic Insomnia in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Amanda Cammalleri, Aurore A. Perrault, Alexandra Hillcoat, Emily Carrese-Chacra, Lukia Tarelli, Rahul Patel, Marc Baltzan, Florian Chouchou, Thien Thanh Dang-Vu, Jean-Philippe Gouin, and Veronique Pepin

Insomnia treatment among individuals with comorbid insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea is suboptimal. In a pilot randomized controlled trial, 19 individuals with comorbid insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea were allocated to one of two arms: EX + EX, consisting of two 8-week phases of exercise training (EX), or RE + CBTiEX, encompassing 8 weeks of relaxation training (RE) followed by 8 weeks of combined cognitive-behavioral therapy and exercise (CBTiEX). Outcomes included Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), polysomnography, and cardiorespiratory fitness measures. A mixed-model analysis of variance revealed a Group × Time interaction on peak oxygen consumption change, F(1, 14) = 10.1, p = .007, and EX increased peak oxygen consumption (p = .03, g′ = −0.41) and reduced ISI (p = .001, g′ = 0.82) compared with RE (p = .49, g = 0.16) post-8 weeks. Post-16 weeks, there was a significant Group × Time interaction (p = .014) driven by RE + CBTiEX yielding a larger improvement in ISI (p = .023, g′ = 1.48) than EX + EX (p = .88, g′ < 0.1). Objective sleep was unchanged. This study showed promising effects of regular EX alone and combined with cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia on ISI in comorbid insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea.

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When Studying Affective Responses to Exercise, the Definition of “Intensity” Must Reference Homeostatic Perturbations: A Retort to Vollaard et al.

Panteleimon Ekkekakis, Mark E. Hartman, and Matthew A. Ladwig

In articles on the methodology of studies investigating affective and enjoyment responses to high-intensity interval training, we noted that, occasionally, exercise conditions described as involving “high” intensity exhibited heart rates that were only as high as, or even lower than, heart rates recorded during comparator conditions described as being of “moderate” intensity. Drs. Vollaard, Metcalfe, Kinghorn, Jung, and Little suggest instead that exercise intensity in high-intensity interval-training studies can be defined in terms of percentages of peak workload. Although we maintain that defining exercise intensity in terms of percentages of maximal heart rate is a suboptimal way to quantify the degree of homeostatic perturbations in response to exercise, we are unconvinced that definitions of intensity relying solely on workload are appropriate for studies investigating affective and enjoyment responses to exercise. The reason is that affect is theorized to have evolved to relay information about homeostatic perturbations to consciousness.

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Percentage of Peak Workload Is Suitable for Quantification of Exercise Intensity During High-Intensity Intervals: A Comment on Ekkekakis, Hartman, and Ladwig

Niels B.J. Vollaard, Richard S. Metcalfe, Daniel Kinghorn, Mary E. Jung, and Jonathan P. Little

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Parents on the Concept of Physical Literacy: What Do They Know, What Do They Do, and What Do They Want?

Aaron Simpson, Ben Jackson, Ashleigh L. Thornton, Michael Rosenberg, Brodie Ward, Peter Roberts, Amanda Derbyshire, and Timothy Budden

Physical literacy development in early childhood, viewed by many as the foundation for lifelong physical activity engagement, is significantly influenced by parents. Our aim was to explore parents’ understanding of physical literacy and gain insight into their perspectives on physical literacy promotion. We recruited 18 parents of children between 5 and 8 years old in Australia. Using semistructured interviews and thematic analysis, we identified several key issues regarding parents’ understanding and implementation of physical literacy. Parents expressed interest in improving their implementation of physical literacy practices and had (often unintentionally) provided support for physical literacy subcomponents in the past. However, they described difficulties prioritizing physical literacy above other parental demands and expressed conflicting perceptions regarding where the responsibility should lie for developing their child’s physical literacy (e.g., at home or at school). To ensure that the physical literacy “message” reaches parents, we encourage physical literacy promoters to consider the target (e.g., responsibility, priorities, and awareness) of their promotional strategies. Further investigation into the influence of sociocultural and economic factors on parents’ understanding and application of physical literacy is warranted.

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Volume 46 (2024): Issue 2 (Apr 2024)

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Psychological Aspects of Motocross Racing Considering Expected, Perceived, and Actual Performance

Liza Komáromi, László Tóth, Ricardo de la Vega Marcos, and Attila Szabo

Motocross racing is a seldom-researched popular extreme sport. This field research aimed to investigate feeling states, perceived arousal, anxiety, and negative and positive affect in the anticipatory and recovery race periods and their relationship to expected and perceived performance. Twenty Motocross racers completed psychometric scales before and after a national championship race. Results revealed that objective performance was unrelated to psychological measures. Arousal, anxiety, and positive affect were lower after the race. Expected performance was unrelated to postrace measures. Still, perceived performance correlated significantly with the feeling state, anxiety, and positive affect after the race and the feeling state before the race. Furthermore, racers who performed as expected or better showed improved feeling states after the race compared with those who did worse than expected. The core affect of the latter group declined. This research on psychological states during Motocross races could motivate new initiatives for future studies.

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Does Participating in a Variety of Activities at a Variety of Locations or With Different People Predict Physical Activity Behavior Among Adolescents? The Mediating Role of Perceived Variety

Ross M. Murray, Benjamin D. Sylvester, Catherine M. Sabiston, Isabelle Doré, and Mathieu Bélanger

We examine whether adolescents’ participating in a variety of physical activities, locations, and/or with a variety of people relates to physical activity 16 months later and whether perceptions of variety mediate these relationships. Adolescents (N = 369) completed measures indicating various physical activities they participated in, where they primarily participated, and with whom they primarily participated, at three time points over a year (averaged for baseline measures). Perceptions of variety was measured 8 months later. Physical activity was measured 16 months after baseline. Mediation analyses tested perceptions of variety as a mediator of variety support and physical activity. Results indicated that variety of activities and variety of locations were indirectly associated with physical activity through perceptions of variety. Participating in a breadth of physical activities in a variety of locations during adolescence is positively associated with perceptions of variety, which relates to physical activity 16 months later.

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Kim Gammage, Erica Bennett, Alyson Crozier, Alison Ede, Matt Hoffman, Seungmin Lee, Sascha Leisterer, Sean Locke, Desi McEwan, Kathleen Mellano, Eva Pila, and Matthew Stork

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Volume 46 (2024): Issue 1 (Feb 2024)