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Willie Leung, Lu Shi, and Jaehun Jung

Background: There are many benefits associated with engaging in strength physical activity. Many studies did not examine the engagement of strength activity among wearable device users. This study aimed to examine the association between wearable device usage and engagement of strength activity in free-living settings using nationally representative data. Methods: A total of 8250 adult wearable device users and nonusers from 8 states of the 2017 Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System were included in analysis. Multiple regression models were performed to determine the association between the dependent variables of strength activities and the independent variable of wearable devices. Results: Wearable device users were 1.26 (95% confidence interval, 1.01–1.81) times the odds of nonusers in engaging in strength activity. Users also had higher odds of meeting both the strength and aerobic physical activity guidelines than nonusers (odds ratio = 1.49; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–2.06; adjusted odds ratio = 1.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.02–2.00). No associations were found between wearable device utilization and frequency of strength activity per week. Conclusion: Wearable device users were more likely to engage in strength activity than nonusers. However, additional studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of wearable devices in promoting strength activity.

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Matthieu Dagenais, Olivia Parker, Sarah Galway, and Kimberley Gammage

Online exercise programming may promote physical activity while at home, but little is known about its use among older adults. Using the Arksey and O’Malley framework, we describe the nature and extent of the research pertaining to the use of online exercise programming among adults 65 years of age and older. We ran two separate searches (January 2005–September 2020 and October 2020–October 2021), yielding 17 articles that met our inclusion criteria. A total of 1,767 participants (69% female) ranging from 65 to 94 years of age were included. Most studies delivered the online programs asynchronously. The majority of studies assessed the feasibility of online programs, with 14 studies investigating health-related outcomes such as physical, psychological, and social health. Future research should explore perceptions and experiences of online exercise programming among older adults and the mechanisms by which it impacts physical, psychological, social, and behavioral outcomes.

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Sandra C. Webber, Scott Anderson, Logan Biccum, Sava Jin, Shahd Khawashki, and Brenda J. Tittlemier

The purpose of this study was to measure heart rate, activity intensity, and steps in recreational singles and doubles pickleball players. We collected data in 22 singles and 31 doubles players (62.1 ± 9.7 years of age) using Garmin Fenix 5 watches (Garmin International, Inc.) and ActiGraph GT3X+ (ActiGraph LLC) accelerometers. Mean heart rates during singles and doubles were 111.6 ± 13.5 and 111.5 ± 16.2 beats/min (70.3% and 71.2% of predicted maximum heart rate), respectively. Over 70% of singles and doubles playing time was categorized in moderate to vigorous heart rate zones whereas 80.5% of singles time and 50.4% of doubles time were moderate based on Freedson accelerometer cut-points. Steps per hour were higher in singles versus doubles (3,322 ± 493 vs. 2,791 ± 359), t(51) = 4.540, p < .001. Singles and doubles pickleball are moderate- to vigorous-intensity activities that can contribute substantially toward older adults meeting physical activity guidelines.

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William Bellew, Tracy Nau, Ben J. Smith, Melody Ding, and Adrian Bauman

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Nolan Gall, Ruopeng Sun, and Matthew Smuck

Introduction: Wrist-worn accelerometer has gained popularity recently in commercial and research use for physical activity tracking. Yet, no consensus exists for standardized wrist-worn data processing, and physical activity data derived from wrist-worn accelerometer cannot be directly compared with data derived from the historically used hip-worn accelerometer. In this work, through a systematic review, we aim to identify and analyze discrepancies between wrist-worn versus hip-worn ActiGraph accelerometers in measuring adult physical activity. Methods: A systematic review was conducted on studies involving free-living data comparison between hip- and wrist-worn ActiGraph accelerometers among adult users. We assessed the population, study protocols, data processing criteria (axis, epoch, wear-time correction, etc.), and outcome measures (step count, sedentary activity time, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, etc.). Step count and activity count discrepancy were analyzed using meta-analysis, while meta-analysis was not attempted for others due to heterogeneous data processing criteria among the studies. Results: We screened 235 studies with 19 studies qualifying for inclusion in the systematic review. Through meta-analysis, the wrist-worn sensor recorded, on average, 3,537 steps/day more than the hip-worn sensor. Regarding sedentary activity time and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity estimation, the wrist sensor consistently overestimates moderate-to-vigorous physical activity time while underestimating sedentary activity time, with discrepancies ranging from a dozen minutes to several hours. Discussions: Our findings quantified the substantial discrepancies between wrist and hip sensors. It calls attention to the need for a cautious approach to interpreting data from different wear locations. These results may also serve as a reference for data comparisons among studies using different sensor locations.

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Jaskanwaljeet Kaur and Ramesh Balasubramaniam

The serial reaction time task (SRTT) is commonly used to study motor learning and memory. The task is traditionally administered in a lab setting with participants responding via button box or keyboard to targets on a screen. By comparing response times of sequential versus random trials and accuracy across sequential trials, different forms of learning can be studied. The present study utilized an online version of the SRTT to study the effects of instructions on learning. Participants were randomly assigned to an explicit learning condition (with instructions to learn the visual sequence and associated tone) or an implicit learning condition (without instructions). Stimuli in both learning conditions were presented in two phases: auditory and visual (training phase), followed by auditory only (testing phase). Results indicated that learning occurred in both training and testing phases, as shown by a significant decrease in response times. There was no significant main effect of learning condition (explicit or implicit) on sequence learning. This suggests that providing explicit instructions does not seem to influence sequence learning in the SRTT learning paradigm. Future online studies utilizing the SRTT should explore varying task instructions in a parametric manner to better understand cognitive processes that underlie sequence learning.

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David A. Wilson, Simon Brown, Paul E. Muckelt, Martin B. Warner, Sandra Agyapong-Badu, Danny Glover, Andrew D. Murray, Roger A. Hawkes, and Maria Stokes

Inactive older adults tend to have decreased strength and balance compared with their more active peers. Playing golf has the potential to improve strength and balance in older adults. The aim of the study was to compare the strength and balance of recreational golfers with non-golfers, aged 65–79 years. Grip strength, single leg balance, and Y Balance Test (YBT) were assessed. Golfers (n = 57) had significantly (right, p = .042; left, p = .047) higher maximal grip strength, than non-golfers (n = 17). Single leg stance times were significantly longer in golfers (right, p = .021; left, p = .001). Normalized YBT reach distances were significantly greater for golfers than non-golfers for composite, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions on both right and left legs. Playing golf appears to be associated with better grip and both static and dynamic balance in 65–79 year olds, indicating that a study of the effects of playing golf is warranted through a larger, fully powered, longitudinal study.

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Andrea Golin, Elisa de Carvalho Costa, Iramaia Salomão Alexandre de Assis, Marina Portugal Makhoul, Fabio Augusto Barbieri, and Camila Torriani-Pasin

The Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD) is not available to Portuguese-Brazil. This study translates, cross-culturally adapts, and validates the PASIPD for Brazilian individuals with Parkinson’s disease. The translation process followed guidelines: initial translation, synthesis, back translation, expert committee, and pretest. The validation and reliability processes were conducted with 40 individuals (15 men and 25 women) with Parkinson’s disease. Concurrent validity was evaluated between PASIPD to Brazilian Portuguese, International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and Human Activity Profile. PASIPD to Brazilian Portuguese was found to be moderately correlated with International Physical Activity Questionnaire (r = .474, p < .05); however, there was no correlation with Human Activity Profile (r = .271, p < .05). We used the intrarater reliability with intraclass correlation coefficient and test–retest. Intrarater reliability was high (intraclass correlation coefficient = .80). Internal consistency was considered adequate by Cronbach’s alpha (α = .70). PASIPD to Brazilian Portuguese is a valid and reliable instrument for evaluating physical activity levels in Brazilian individuals with Parkinson’s disease.

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Farid Najafi, Mitra Darbandi, Shahab Rezaeian, Behrooz Hamzeh, Mehdi Moradinazar, Ebrahim Shakiba, and Yahya Pasdar

Background: The present study assessed the association between relative handgrip strength (RHGS) and hypertension incidence in healthy adults. Methods: We performed a case-cohort study on 3784 participants from Ravansar Non-Communicable Diseases cohort study. The absolute HGS was measured using a digital dynamometer. Hypertension was defined as systolic/diastolic blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg and/or use of antihypertensive medications. Cox regression analysis was utilized to estimate hazard ratios of incident hypertension events with RHGS. Results: Physical activity was significantly higher in the participants with hypertension compared with nonhypertensive participants (P < .001). High-level physical activity in the subjects with lower, middle, and upper RHGS was 19.6%, 33.1%, and 47.3%, respectively (P < .001). RHGS was significantly higher in individuals with greater skeletal muscle mass (P < .001). The men and women with the upper RHGS, had an 80% (hazard ratio: 0.2; 95% confidence interval, 0.1–0.3) and 70% (hazard ratio: 0.3; 95% confidence interval, 0.1–1.2), were lower risk of hypertension compared with those with the lower RHGS, respectively. This association remains significant after adjustment for confounding factors in men. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that middle and upper levels of RHGS were associated with a lower risk of hypertension incidence. RHGS may be a protective factor for hypertension. We suggested muscle strengthening exercises.

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Emily E. Gerstle, Kristian O’Connor, Kevin G. Keenan, Brooke A. Slavens, and Stephen C. Cobb

Despite the higher injury rate of falls on steps versus level ground, few studies have examined the influence of age and fall history on step descent. The purpose of this study was to determine the lead and trail limb neuromuscular function (peak joint moments and powers, electromyographic activity) differences between young females (n = 15) and older females with (n = 15) and without (n = 15) a fall history while descending a single step. Trail limb moments and powers did not differ between groups. Lead limb sagittal plane powers at the hip and knee were greater in the young adults. Electromyographic co-activation levels (knee and ankle) were not significantly different between groups. However, peroneal activation was greater in the older groups, which may have assisted in stabilizing the ankle joint in lieu of increased co-activation at the ankle. These results demonstrate consideration of step descent is important in working with older women at risk of falls.