The authors investigated the effects of respite–active music (i.e., music used for active recovery in between high-intensity exercise bouts) on psychological and psychophysiological outcomes. Participants (N = 24) made four laboratory visits for a habituation, medium- and fast-tempo music conditions, and a no-music control. A high-intensity interval-training protocol comprising 8 × 60-s exercise bouts at 100% W max with 90-s active recovery was administered. Measures were taken at the end of exercise bouts and recovery periods (rating of perceived exertion [RPE], state attention, and core affect) and then upon cessation of the protocol (enjoyment and remembered pleasure). Heart rate was measured throughout. Medium-tempo music enhanced affective valence during exercise and recovery, while both music conditions increased dissociation (only during recovery), enjoyment, and remembered pleasure relative to control. Medium-tempo music lowered RPE relative to control, but the heart rate results were inconclusive. As predicted, medium-tempo music, in particular, had a meaningful effect on a range of psychological outcomes.
Costas I. Karageorghis, Leighton Jones, Luke W. Howard, Rhys M. Thomas, Panayiotis Moulashis, and Sam J. Santich
Dorthe Dalstrup Jakobsen, Jasper Schipperijn, and Jens Meldgaard Bruun
Background: In Denmark, most children are not sufficiently physically active and only a few interventions have been found to increase long-term physical activity among overweight and obese children. The aim of our study was to investigate if children are physically active in correspondence to Danish recommendations after attending a multicomponent-overnight camp. Methods: A questionnaire was developed to estimate children’s physical activity level and behavior and investigate how transport, economy, availability, time, motivation, and knowledge about physical activity affect children’s physical activity level and behavior. Results: In this study, 60.9% of the children did vigorous physical activity (VPA) minimum 30 minutes 3 times per week up to 3 years after camp. Most children were physically active at a sports club (44.3%) and only 5.7% of the children did not participate in physical activity. Parental physical activity and child motivation toward physical activity were significantly (P < .05) associated with children doing VPA. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that 60.9% of children who attended camp engage in VPA after camp, which compared with a recent Danish study, is more frequent than children who did not attend camp. Further investigations are needed to determine the long-term health effects in children attending interventions such as multicomponent-overnight camps.
Kim Gammage, Alyson Crozier, Alison Ede, Christopher Hill, Sean Locke, Eric Martin, Desi McEwan, Kathleen Mellano, Eva Pila, Matthew Stork, and Svenja Wolf
Marcelo Gonçalves Duarte, Glauber Carvalho Nobre, Thábata Viviane Brandão Gomes, and Rodolfo Novelino Benda
Background: Studies related to the motor performance of children have suggested an interaction between organisms and the environment. Although motor development seems to be similar among people, the behavior is specific to the context that people are part of. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the fundamental motor skill performance between indigenous (IN) and nonindigenous children. Methods: One hundred and thirteen children (43 IN and 70 nonindigenous children) between 8 and 10 years of age underwent the Test of Gross Motor Development—2. Results: A multivariate analysis showed a significant group main effect on both locomotor (p < .01) and object control (p < .01) performance with large and medium effect sizes (
Fraser Carson, Clara McCormack, Paula McGovern, Samara Ralston, and Julia Walsh
This best practice paper reflects on a pilot coach education program designed for women coaching Australian Rules football. Focused on enhancing self-regulation, and underpinned by a growth mindset framework, the “Coach like a Woman” program was delivered to a selected group of female coaches either working in or having been identified with the potential to coach at high-performance levels. This manuscript describes the program content and discusses the key insights identified by the delivery team. Creating a community of practice encouraged the transfer of knowledge and experience between the enrolled coaches, which increased competence and self-confidence. Providing an understanding of behavioral tendencies enhanced positive self-talk and aided self-regulation by the coaches. The delivery of the program and challenges experienced are also discussed. This reflection on the program is provided to assist future developments in coach education.
Dong Ha Kim, Heewon Kang, and Seunghyun Yoo
Walking promotes active aging; however, walking prevalence changes among older adults by age and environmental conditions remain unclear. Age-period-cohort (APC) differences in walking trends among Korean older adults were examined. Data included adults aged ≥ 65 years (n = 592,235) from the nationally representative Korean Community Health Survey. Regional units examined were metropolitan cities, small- and medium-sized cities, and rural areas. Environment-stratified APC modeling was applied for walking prevalence (walking days/time during the past week). From 2008 to 2017, the walking prevalence gap between regional units widened. Decreasing trends were most apparent in rural areas, including by birth year. In all areas, walking decreased with increased age. No distinct period effects were found. Each effect’s magnitude was larger in rural areas than cities. Differential APC effects by environmental conditions likely influence walking prevalence changes among older adults. Walking promotion for older adults should consider APC effects and environmental conditions.
Pankaja Desai, Shannon Halloway, Klodian Dhana, Yanyu Zhang, Thomas Holland, Puja Agarwal, Christopher N. Ford, Carlos Mendes de Leon, Denis A. Evans, and Martha C. Morris
This study examined the relationship between walking and cognitive function among Chicago Health and Aging Project participants. Data collection occurred during six 3-year cycles, of which Cycles 4–6 were used for this specific analysis. Information was obtained regarding walking frequency and duration, demographics, chronic conditions, cognitive activities, apolipoprotein E4, physical function, and cognitive function (global and domains). A composite walking measure was developed and categorized as follows: no walking, ≤105 min/week, and >105 min/week. Mixed-effects regression analyses tested associations between walking and global cognitive function, episodic memory, and perceptual speed. The sample consisted of 4,320 participants (African American/Black: 65%; female: 65%; mean education: 13 years; mean age: 75 years). Composite or total walking had a statistically significant association with global cognitive function and perceptual speed, after adjustments were made.