This study aimed to validate a 7-sensor inertial measurement unit system against optical motion capture to estimate bilateral lower-limb kinematics. Hip, knee, and ankle sagittal plane peak angles and range of motion (ROM) were compared during bodyweight squats and countermovement jumps in 18 participants. In the bodyweight squats, left peak hip flexion (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = .51), knee extension (ICC = .68) and ankle plantar flexion (ICC = .55), and hip (ICC = .63) and knee (ICC = .52) ROM had moderate agreement, and right knee ROM had good agreement (ICC = .77). Relatively higher agreement was observed in the countermovement jumps compared to the bodyweight squats, moderate to good agreement in right peak knee flexion (ICC = .73), and right (ICC = .75) and left (ICC = .83) knee ROM. Moderate agreement was observed for right ankle plantar flexion (ICC = .63) and ROM (ICC = .51). Moderate agreement (ICC > .50) was observed in all variables in the left limb except hip extension, knee flexion, and dorsiflexion. In general, there was poor agreement for peak flexion angles, and at least moderate agreement for joint ROM. Future work will aim to optimize methodologies to increase usability and confidence in data interpretation by minimizing variance in system-based differences and may also benefit from expanding planes of movement.
AuraLea Fain, Benjamin Hindle, Jordan Andersen, Bradley C. Nindl, Matthew B. Bird, Joel T. Fuller, Jodie A. Wills, and Tim L.A. Doyle
Mark Vorensky, Daniel Peredo, Wil Colón, Smita Rao, and Rumit Singh Kakar
The purpose of this study was to compare interlimb asymmetries in trunk and knee kinematics during a single-leg drop landing between athletes 9 months post anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (post-ACLR) and healthy athletes using two-dimensional analysis. Thirty-three recreational athletes (12 post-ACLR and 21 healthy) participated in the study. Participants post-ACLR showed significantly higher limb symmetry indices in peak trunk flexion (144.0%, SE drop landing kinematics: 22.7%) when compared to healthy participants (100.6%, SE: 10.5%; z = 2.17, p = .03) and lower limb symmetry indices in peak knee flexion (85.3%, SE: 3.6%) when compared to healthy participants (98.0%, SE: 3.3%; z = −2.43, p = .01). Two-dimensional analyses of a single-leg drop landing is a clinically applicable tool that can identify interlimb asymmetries in peak trunk flexion and peak knee flexion kinematics in athletes greater than 9 months post-ACLR when compared to healthy athletes.
Cailee E. Welch Bacon, Nydia L. Cabra, Taryn C. Pennington, Lindsey E. Eberman, and Julie M. Cavallario
All athletic trainers (ATs) must meet regulatory standards as outlined in state practice acts. While state practice acts are similar, some variations can lead to misunderstanding or unfamiliarity with appropriate scopes of practice. We aimed to describe ATs’ perceptions regarding athletic training scope of practice. Only 29.7% of respondents correctly identified state government as the agency that defines athletic training scope of practice and 51.7% agreed their respective state practice act limits the skills they can perform. To advocate for the profession, ATs must have a primary understanding of the laws and regulations that promote ATs to work at their fullest ability.
Anna M. Martin, Donghyun Ryu, Robin C. Jackson, and David L. Mann
Para sport classification aims to minimize the impact of impairments on the outcome of competition. The International Paralympic Committee requires classification systems to be evidence based and sport specific, yet the sport of goalball uses a structure that is not supported by evidence demonstrating its legitimacy for competition. This study aimed to establish expert opinions on how a sport-specific system of classification should be structured in the sport of goalball. Using a three-round Delphi survey, 30 international experts expressed their views across topics linked to goalball classification. Participants were divided as to whether the current system fulfills the aim to minimize the impact of impairment on competition. Most felt that less impairment should be required to compete but that the one-class structure should remain. Experts identified measures of visual function that should be considered and 15 core components of individual goalball performance. Findings constitute a crucial first step toward evidence-based classification in goalball.
Nader Farahpour, Mahboube Alemzadeh, Mehri Mohammadi, Mohammadreza Rezaie, and Paul Allard
Left–right differential erector spinae (ES) muscle strengthening is required to correct ES muscle imbalances. The objective was to test the effect of 6 body positions on the differential activation of the ES muscles. In 14 able-bodied young women, using a surface electromyography system, the bilateral ES muscles activity at the third lumbar (ESL3) and the 10th (EST10) and 6th (EST6) thoracic vertebral levels was measured with the contralateral arm and leg lifted in the prone and quadruped conditions and with a single arm lifted in the quadruped position. Results showed that the activity of the ESL3 was symmetrical (P > .05) and significantly smaller than that of the thoracic ES muscles in all body positions (P < .01). The EST10 and EST6 were differentially activated in all tests (P < .001). Besides, the differential activation was higher in the contralateral-arm and -leg lift in the quadruped position than in the other positions. In conclusion, contralateral-arm and -leg lift and single-arm lift in the quadruped and prone positions are capable of differentially activating the ES muscles on one side more than the other side. Further studies are recommended to examine the effectiveness of these exercises on the correction of ES muscle imbalances in clinical populations.
Rodrigo Martín-San Agustín, Francesc Medina-Mirapeix, Mariano Gacto-Sánchez, Germán Cánovas-Ambit, and Aurelio Arenas-Della Vecchia
Context: Calculating the resistance provided by elastic resistance is essential with the aim of adjusting the load and controlling the progression of the exercises in programs using elastic resistance. This study aimed (1) to establish a model of the force elongation for CLX bands; (2) to examine whether these models are altered by different aspects of band elongation: the phase of elongation and shortening (concentric and eccentric phases), the elongation speed, and the initial resting length; and (3) to determine the resistance value for 100% of elongation in each color and to compare it with the values reported by Theraband. Design: Cross‐sectional. Methods: Ten CLX bands of each color were elongated by 2 experienced researchers to establish their elongation force curves in series of 10 repetitions per band using a Smith machine for an anchor, examining whether elongation force models were affected by elongation and shortening phases using one 4-loop CLX band stretched to 100% and at 0.50 m/s, elongation speed stretching two 4-loop CLX bands at 0.50 m/s and at 0.70 m/s, and different starting lengths using 3 CLX bands (2, 3, and 4 loops) stretched at 0.50 m/s. Results: No differences were found in the comparisons between phases, speeds, or different start lengths (mean errors ranged from 0.01 [0.07 N] for the blue band to 2.97 [0.94 N] for the gold band). Our values were higher than the reference values provided by Theraband for all colors, ranging from 2.3% to 33.1%. Conclusions: Our findings show that the values provided by the brand underestimate the resistance provided by CLX bands. To solve this, regression equations are provided so professionals can calculate the resistance of CLX bands based on their elongation. In addition, these models are not influenced by the phase of elongation and shortening, the elongation speed, and the initial resting length.
Tomoya Ishida, Mina Samukawa, Yuta Koshino, Takumi Ino, Satoshi Kasahara, and Harukazu Tohyama
Asymmetry in knee extensor moment during double-leg squatting was observed after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, even after the completion of the rehabilitation program for return to sports. The purpose of this study was to clarify the association between asymmetry in the knee extensor moment and pelvic rotation angle during double-leg squatting after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Twenty-four participants performed double-leg squatting. Kinetics and kinematics during squatting were analyzed using a 3-dimensional motion analysis system with 2 force plates. The limb symmetry index of knee extensor moment was predicted by the pelvic rotation angle (R 2 = .376, P = .001). In addition, the pelvic rotation and the limb symmetry index of the vertical ground reaction force independently explained the limb symmetry index of the knee extensor moment (R 2 = .635, P < .001, β of pelvic rotation = −0.489, β of vertical ground reaction force = 0.524). Pelvic rotation toward the involved limb was associated with a smaller knee extensor moment in the involved limb than in the uninvolved limb. The assessment of pelvic rotation would be useful for partially predicting asymmetry in the knee extensor moment during double-leg squatting. Minimizing pelvic rotation may improve the asymmetry in the knee extensor moment during double-leg squatting after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.
Ling Li, Yu Song, Maddy Jenkins, and Boyi Dai
Biomechanical behavior prior to landing likely contributes to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries during jump-landing tasks. This study examined prelanding knee kinematics and landing ground reaction forces (GRFs) during single-leg and double-leg landings in males and females. Participants performed landings with the dominant leg or both legs while kinematic and GRF data were collected. Single-leg landings demonstrated less time between prelanding minimal knee flexion and initial ground contact, decreased prelanding and early-landing knee flexion angles and velocities, and increased peak vertical and posterior GRFs compared with double-leg landings. Increased prelanding knee flexion velocities and knee flexion excursion correlated with decreased peak posterior GRFs during both double-leg and single-leg landings. No significant differences were observed between males and females. Prelanding knee kinematics may contribute to the increased risk of ACL injuries in single-leg landings compared with double-leg landings. Future studies are encouraged to incorporate prelanding knee mechanics to understand ACL injury mechanisms and predict future ACL injury risks. Studies of the feasibility of increasing prelanding knee flexion are needed to understand the potential role of prelanding kinematics in decreasing ACL injury risk.
Christopher J. Burcal
Unai Latorre Erezuma, Maialen Zelaia Amilibia, Ander Espin Elorza, Camilo Cortés, Jon Irazusta, and Ana Rodriguez-Larrad
This study assessed the effectiveness of a passive back support exoskeleton during a mechanical loading task. Fifteen healthy participants performed a simulated patient transfer task while wearing the Laevo (version 2.5) passive back support exoskeleton. Collected metrics encompassed L5-S1 joint moments, back and abdominal muscle activity, lower body and back kinematics, center of mass displacement, and movement smoothness. A statistical parametric mapping analysis approach was used to overcome limitations from discretization of continuous data. The exoskeleton reduced L5-S1 joint moments during trunk flexion, but wearing the device restricted L5-S1 joint flexion when flexing the trunk as well as hip and knee extension, preventing participants from standing fully upright. Moreover, wearing the device limited center of mass motion in the caudal direction and increased its motion in the anterior direction. Therefore, wearing the exoskeleton partly reduced lower back moments during the lowering phase of the patient transfer task, but there were some undesired effects such as altered joint kinematics and center of mass displacement. Statistical parametric mapping analysis was useful in determining the benefits and hindrances produced by wearing the exoskeleton while performing the simulated patient transfer task and should be utilized in further studies to inform design and appropriate usage.