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Rodrigo Rodrigues Gomes Costa, Matt Laurent, Frederico Ribeiro Neto, Luis Felipe Castelli Correa de Campos, and Ciro Winckler

Context: One of the primary training variables, although often overlooked, is recovery level achieved before starting subsequent training sessions. To find a more practical measurement that is consonant with the daily training routine, the Perceived Recovery Status (PRS) scale is proposed. In this perspective, the present study aimed to translate and culturally adapt the PRS scale into Brazilian Portuguese. Design: This was a clinical measurement. Methods: The cross-cultural translation was performed according to guidelines. Linguistic validation consisted of 5 stages: forward translation, translation synthesis, back translation, analysis of inconsistencies, and cognitive debriefing. Results: During forward translation, different interpretations were obtained from the 2 translators (versions V1 and V2). Supported by an expert committee, a combined version (V3) was obtained from V1 and V2. During back translation, different interpretations were obtained from the 2 translators (versions V4 and V5). Discrepancies, applicability, and cultural equivalence were documented and analyzed by the expert committee participating in the cross-cultural translation procedure. During the cognitive debriefing, a group of 5 Brazilian people from the general population were asked to participate in a cognitive debriefing to assess the comprehensibility of the translated items. Conclusions: The PRS was translated and culturally adapted to Brazilian Portuguese (PRS-Brasil).

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Luísa V. Pinto, Filipa C. Gouveia, Joana F. Ramalho, Sara R. Silva, and Joana R. Silva

Context: Horse riding (HR) has gain popularity in Portugal, thereby increasing the number of related injuries. This study identifies frequently occurring injuries in Portuguese riders, the conditions under which they occur, and preventive measures. Design: A retrospective cohort study. Methods: We included 216 Portuguese riders practicing HR at the time of the study with ≥1 year of experience. Data were obtained from a questionnaire that characterized first and second rider injuries; we opted for a systematic method to assess the riders’ injuries, in a temporal order. Questions regarding demographic data, sports-related background, systematic training workload, number and characteristics of the first 2 injuries, and the need for treatment were included in the questionnaire. Results: Most first and second injuries were musculoskeletal, occurred from falling off the horse during training, and primarily affected the lower limb. Rehabilitation was required in almost 50% of all cases. The occurrence of injury was significantly associated with the number of days of training per week, years of experience, height and weight of the rider, and practice of another sport. Riding different horses was also significantly associated with the number of injuries. Conclusions: The most frequently occurring injuries during HR are musculoskeletal and in the extremities. Injury prevention is essential in HR, as most riders have at least one injury while practicing. Rehabilitation should involve a physiatrist and core strengthening exercises.

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Kevin M. Biese, Madeline Winans, Grace Rudek, Mayrena I. Hernandez, Lisa Cadmus-Bertram, Susan J. Andreae, M. Alison Brooks, Stephanie Kliethermes, Timothy A. McGuine, and David R. Bell

Context: Studies have illustrated that overuse injuries occur in adolescent athletes more often than previously reported. The general purpose of this study was to provide a thorough report of secondary school athletic trainers encounters, practices, and perceptions of overuse injury in adolescent athletes. Design: Cross-sectional. Methods: An anonymous online questionnaire was distributed via email to athletic trainers in the secondary school setting. The questionnaire was sent to participants during the summer of 2021 and 430 participants (highest educational degree earned: master’s degree = 66%) completed the survey. Various survey methods were used to evaluate athletic trainers (1) demographics, (2) estimations about what percentage of injuries evaluated and treated were classified as overuse, (3) methods for treating overuse injuries, (4) confidence in treating overuse injuries and the complete implementation of their treatment plan, (5) perceptions of various barriers to treating overuse injuries, and (6) perception as to why patients did not want to reduce activity to treat their overuse injuries. Results: Participants reported that about half of all evaluations and treatments in a year were overuse injuries and they were “fairly” or “completely” confident (90%) in their ability to treat these injuries. The most common treatments cited were stretching (91%) and reducing activity (90%). Only 61% of participants were “fairly” or “completely” confident in the complete implementation of their treatment plan. Participants believed that patients’ reluctance to reduce sport activities (82% “moderate” or “extreme” barrier) was the most significant barrier to treatment. Participants cited athletes’ avoidance of missing games as the most common reason athletes were reluctant to reduce sporting activity. Conclusions: Participants felt confident in treating overuse injuries yet faced significant barriers in treating these injuries. Clinicians should be prepared to have conversations about the importance of reducing sporting activity to allow proper healing for overuse injuries in adolescent athletes.

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Conner Howard, Alexis Kahnt, Jennifer L. Volberding, and Jay Dawes

The unpredictable environments firefighters face paired with biomechanically compromising shoulder movements, such as overhead and lifting movements, place this population at an increased risk for shoulder injury. The purpose of this study was to assess firefighter trainees’ bilateral shoulder range of motion (ROM) using the Dynamic Athletic Research Institute Motion system. Retrospective anthropometric and ROM data for 31 male firefighter trainees were analyzed. Firefighter trainees’ mean shoulder ROM for bilateral external rotation, internal rotation, and extension were lower than previously published values. External rotation demonstrated the lowest percentage of trainees within normal ROM (left—6.67%, right—16.67%). Noting the susceptibility of upper extremity injuries among firefighters, establishing baseline ROM measurements for reference may improve musculoskeletal evaluations, training interventions, and injury rehabilitation.

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Meredith Wekesser, Guilherme H. Costa, Piotr J. Pasik, and Karl Erickson

Adapted sport participation can have many positive benefits for adults with disabilities. However, one barrier to implementing successful adapted sport programs is lack of knowledgeable volunteers who understand accessibility and disability. In fact, little is known about volunteers’ experiences in adapted sport programs. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively examine experiences of able-bodied volunteers in an adapted sport program. A sample of 105 able-bodied volunteers (M age = 24.28 ± 1.93) completed an online qualitative survey to share their experiences. Data were analyzed using qualitative thematic analysis, and seven main themes were identified. Results showed that despite differences in initial motives for volunteering, involvement in an adapted sport program was transformative and, for some, life changing. Able-bodied volunteers experienced a wide range of benefits including deeper understanding and awareness of disability and inclusion in sport. Practical recommendations are provided for volunteer-based adapted sport program leaders.

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Yu-Ting Tseng, Chia-Liang Tsai, Tzu Hsuan Wu, Yi-Wen Chen, and Yi-Hsuan Lin

This study examined whether table tennis as a method of sensorimotor training improves haptic and motor function and to what extent haptic function gain correlates with changes in motor ability in children with probable developmental coordination disorder (pDCD). Children with pDCD were randomly assigned to the table tennis and nontraining control groups. The children in the table tennis group received 36 sessions of table tennis training, including ball balancing, hitting the ball against the wall, strokes, and serving. Haptic sensitivity, acuity, and motor function domains were measured. The results showed a 41.5% improvement in haptic sensitivity in children exposed to table tennis training compared with 2.8% in those without training. This improved haptic sensitivity significantly correlated with motor function gain, suggesting that somatosensory gains occur simultaneously with changes in motor function in children with pDCD. This novel upper limb motor training approach may be an interesting method of sensorimotor training in neurological rehabilitation in children with pDCD.

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Nima Dehghansai, Alia Mazhar, and Joseph Baker

Research pertaining to the experiences and motives of Paralympic athletes who transfer between sports is scant. This study aimed to address this gap through semistructured interviews with Canadian Paralympic coaches (n = 35) and athletes (n = 12). Three higher-order themes of “alternative to retirement,” “career extension,” and “compatibility” were identified. The subthemes of “psychobehavioral” and “physical and physiological” (from the higher-order theme of alternative to retirement) captured reasons leading to transfer, which are similar to reasons athletes may consider retirement. The subthemes of career extension—“better opportunities” and “beneficial outcomes”—shed light on factors that contributed to the withdrawal of negative experiences and reinforcement of positive outcomes associated with transferring sports. Last, compatibility had three subthemes of “resources,” “sport-specific,” and “communication,” which encapsulated factors athletes should consider prior to their transfer. In conclusion, the participants highlighted the importance of transparent and effective communication between athletes and sports to align and establish realistic expectations for everyone involved.

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AuraLea Fain, Benjamin Hindle, Jordan Andersen, Bradley C. Nindl, Matthew B. Bird, Joel T. Fuller, Jodie A. Wills, and Tim L.A. Doyle

This study aimed to validate a 7-sensor inertial measurement unit system against optical motion capture to estimate bilateral lower-limb kinematics. Hip, knee, and ankle sagittal plane peak angles and range of motion (ROM) were compared during bodyweight squats and countermovement jumps in 18 participants. In the bodyweight squats, left peak hip flexion (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = .51), knee extension (ICC = .68) and ankle plantar flexion (ICC = .55), and hip (ICC = .63) and knee (ICC = .52) ROM had moderate agreement, and right knee ROM had good agreement (ICC = .77). Relatively higher agreement was observed in the countermovement jumps compared to the bodyweight squats, moderate to good agreement in right peak knee flexion (ICC = .73), and right (ICC = .75) and left (ICC = .83) knee ROM. Moderate agreement was observed for right ankle plantar flexion (ICC = .63) and ROM (ICC = .51). Moderate agreement (ICC > .50) was observed in all variables in the left limb except hip extension, knee flexion, and dorsiflexion. In general, there was poor agreement for peak flexion angles, and at least moderate agreement for joint ROM. Future work will aim to optimize methodologies to increase usability and confidence in data interpretation by minimizing variance in system-based differences and may also benefit from expanding planes of movement.

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Mark Vorensky, Daniel Peredo, Wil Colón, Smita Rao, and Rumit Singh Kakar

The purpose of this study was to compare interlimb asymmetries in trunk and knee kinematics during a single-leg drop landing between athletes 9 months post anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (post-ACLR) and healthy athletes using two-dimensional analysis. Thirty-three recreational athletes (12 post-ACLR and 21 healthy) participated in the study. Participants post-ACLR showed significantly higher limb symmetry indices in peak trunk flexion (144.0%, SE drop landing kinematics: 22.7%) when compared to healthy participants (100.6%, SE: 10.5%; z = 2.17, p = .03) and lower limb symmetry indices in peak knee flexion (85.3%, SE: 3.6%) when compared to healthy participants (98.0%, SE: 3.3%; z = −2.43, p = .01). Two-dimensional analyses of a single-leg drop landing is a clinically applicable tool that can identify interlimb asymmetries in peak trunk flexion and peak knee flexion kinematics in athletes greater than 9 months post-ACLR when compared to healthy athletes.

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Cailee E. Welch Bacon, Nydia L. Cabra, Taryn C. Pennington, Lindsey E. Eberman, and Julie M. Cavallario

All athletic trainers (ATs) must meet regulatory standards as outlined in state practice acts. While state practice acts are similar, some variations can lead to misunderstanding or unfamiliarity with appropriate scopes of practice. We aimed to describe ATs’ perceptions regarding athletic training scope of practice. Only 29.7% of respondents correctly identified state government as the agency that defines athletic training scope of practice and 51.7% agreed their respective state practice act limits the skills they can perform. To advocate for the profession, ATs must have a primary understanding of the laws and regulations that promote ATs to work at their fullest ability.