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Generalization of Participation in Fitness Activities From Physical Education to Lunch Recess by Gender and Skill Level

Peter Iserbyt, Hans van der Mars, Hannelore Drijvers, and Jan Seghers

Purpose: Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs aim to maximize the application of skills learned in physical education (PE) in other settings. We investigated students’ generalization of participation in fitness activities from PE to organized fitness programs during lunch recess. Method: Voluntary participation of 153 (74 girls, age 12.4 years) students from five schools in a fitness recess program before, during, and after a 12-lesson sport education fitness season in PE was assessed by gender and skill level. Moderate to vigorous physical activity was assessed through systematic observation. Results: After the sport education season, participation in fitness recess dropped from 41% to 9%, p < .001, effect size = 0.34. Average moderate to vigorous physical activity was higher in fitness (45%) compared with traditional recess (11%), p < .001, effect size = 0.50, irrespective of gender and skill level. Discussion/Conclusion: Generalization of participation in fitness activities from PE to lunch recess is a promising strategy to increase students’ moderate to vigorous physical activity.

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The Secondary School Curriculum: Teachers’ and Students’ Perspectives

Dominique Banville, Risto Marttinen, and Alba Rodrigues

Purpose: The purpose of the study was to examine the perspective of teachers and students within the same secondary schools on the physical education (PE) curriculum offered. Method: Semistructured interviews with secondary school PE teachers and a focus group with their students were conducted within a large school district located on the east coast of the United States. The collaborative qualitative analysis procedures suggested by Richards and Hemphill were used. Results: Three main themes were identified: (a) fitness with two subthemes of (i) what fitness means and (ii) fitness in PE, (b) the PE curriculum, and (c) curriculum decisions. Discussion/Conclusion: Teachers discussed wanting students to be active and improve their cardiovascular fitness and, from their own account and that of their students, acknowledged “rolling the ball out” so that students could play and not be bothered with drills and learning tasks. This lack of instruction, unfortunately, left low-skilled students more vulnerable.

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Reclaiming the Conveyor Belt: Physical Education Teacher Education as a Pipeline to the Professoriate for Black Males

Javier L. Wallace, Langston Clark, and James E. Cooper Jr.

There is a plethora of scholarship concerning the lack of academic achievement among Black males in the United States. Within higher education, this lack of achievement is represented as the difficult matriculation of Black males through their undergraduate experience and their lack of representation in the doctoral pipeline. The lack of representation has been explicitly documented within physical education teacher education and kinesiology scholarship—having been framed as the extinction of Black professionals in our field. Despite the ongoing deficit research about Black males and education, the purpose of this article is to present a framework for the recruiting, sustaining, and supporting of Black males to the professoriate through physical education teacher education. We utilized our personal experiences in a Black male doctoral pipeline to detail how physical education teacher education can be leveraged to mentor Black males within the field and others.

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Understanding How Preservice Teachers Interpret Early Field Experiences at the Secondary Level

Nicholas S. Washburn, Karen Lux Gaudreault, Christopher Mellor, Caitlin R. Olive, and Adriana Lucero

Purpose: Grounded in self-determination theory, this study examined factors of secondary early field experiences that preservice teachers consider significant and how these experiences impact them as educators. Method: Preservice teachers (N = 13) completed two 10-week early field experiences, one at each level—middle school and high school. Data sources included weekly reflections, interviews, emails, and nonparticipant observations. Data were analyzed inductively through constant comparison and deductively to establish meaning through self-determination theory. Results: The cooperating teachers were substantially influential for the preservice teachers, as were establishing connections with concepts learned in methods courses and tending to students’ well-being. The way the early field experiences influenced the preservice teachers as educators was unique to the individual, as negative experiences were channeled positively for some and negatively for others. Conclusion: Early field experiences are quite influential, thus physical education teacher education programs should strongly consider vetting placements or strategically pairing students with placements, particularly at the secondary level, to optimize professional development.

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Physical Activity Leadership Development Through a Physical Education Teacher Education Service-Learning Course

Cate A. Egan, Christopher B. Merica, Grace Goc Karp, Karie Orendorff, and Hayley Beth McKown

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to understand how a service-learning project implementation can help preservice physical education teachers develop physical activity (PA) leadership skills. Methods: A qualitative exploratory single case study was employed, and eight preservice physical education students enrolled in service-learning course were recruited. Data included pre/post self-assessment surveys, reflection journals, individual interviews, and final poster presentations, and were coded using service-learning as a lens. Trustworthiness was established using multiple strategies. Results: Three major themes emerged, each with their own subthemes. Theme 1 was Practical Experience, Theme 2 was Learning to be Leaders, and Theme 3 was Service-Learning. Discussion/Conclusion: The hands-on structure of a service-learning course allowed students to develop PA leadership skills and provided them with the skills and confidence needed to implement expanded PA programs in the future. Service-learning courses are a viable option for PA leadership training in teacher education programs.

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Examining the Culturally Responsive Teaching Self-Efficacy in Physical Education Teacher Education Alumni

Sara B. Flory, Rebecca C. Wylie, and Craigory V. Nieman

Purpose: To examine the culturally responsive teaching self-efficacy of graduates of a physical education teacher education undergraduate program specifically focused on social justice issues. Methods: A total of 43 graduates (from 2013 to 2019) of a physical education teacher education program completed the Culturally Responsive Teaching Self-Efficacy Scale and demographic questions via Qualtrics (50.6% response rate). Descriptive statistics and data analysis were completed using SPSS. Results: The total Culturally Responsive Teaching Self-Efficacy Scale scores from these participants ranged from 1,567 to 4,000 (M = 3,469.63; SD = 555.34). Participants scored highest on items related to their confidence in developing personal relationships and trust with students. They scored lowest on items related to more specific culturally sensitive and responsive teaching practices. Discussion: Specific coursework and training need to be implemented to address more culturally responsive teaching practices, such as how to communicate effectively with students whose primary language is not English.

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A Systematic Review of Correlates of the Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity of Students in Elementary School Physical Education

Lijuan Wang and Yulan Zhou

This study systematically summarize existing literature focusing on the correlates of students’ moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during elementary school physical education (PE). A systematic search was initiated to identify studies investigating the physical activity correlates in students during elementary PE. Two researchers independently screened the studies, assessed their methodological quality, and extracted relevant data. The correlates were synthesized and further assessed using the semiquantitative method. A total of 42 studies were included in the review. Out of 44 variables identified from these studies, 10 were consistently associated with MVPA. Gender (boys), PE activities (team games), PE context (fitness activities, game play, and skill practice), class location (outdoors)and perceived competence were consistently and positively associated with the MVPA of students in PE. Other variables, namely body mass index, larger class size, and PE activities (movement activities), were consistently and negatively related to MVPA. In conclusion, this study improves our understanding of the correlates of students’ physical activity from the demographic,biological, instructional, physical environment, social support, and psychological perspectives. These variables should be focused on when designing new or improving current interventions.

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Volume 41 (2022): Issue 1 (Jan 2022)

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Predicting Changes in Physical Education Teachers’ Behaviors Promoting Physical Activity During the COVID-19 Pandemic Using an Integrated Motivational Model

Silvio Maltagliati, Attilio Carraro, Géraldine Escriva-Boulley, Maurizio Bertollo, Damien Tessier, Alessandra Colangelo, Athanasios Papaioannou, Selenia di Fronso, Boris Cheval, Erica Gobbi, and Philippe Sarrazin

Purpose: To identify motivational determinants explaining Physical Education teachers’ behaviors promoting students’ physical activity (PA) amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: Nine hundred thirty-one Italian and French teachers completed a questionnaire assessing motivational determinants (self-determined motivation, self-efficacy, perceived ease and usefulness toward digital technologies, engagement at work), their intention and behaviors promoting PA, in reference to before and during the pandemic. Path analyses tested the associations of changes in motivational determinants with changes in intention and behaviors. Results: Increases in autonomous, controlled motivation, self-efficacy, and perceived usefulness toward digital technologies, and a decrease in amotivation were associated with an increase in the intention to promote PA. In turn, an increase in intention, but also in self-efficacy, autonomous motivation, and perceived usefulness toward digital technologies were paired with an increase in behaviors promoting PA. Conclusion: Implications regarding the commitment of Physical Education teachers to challenging pedagogical situations, such as promoting PA amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, are discussed.

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Promoting Health-Related Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Physical Education: The Role of Lesson Context and Teacher Behavior in an Observational Longitudinal Study

Miguel Peralta, Élvio Rúbio Gouveia, Gerson Ferrari, Ricardo Catunda, Duarte Heriques-Neto, and Adilson Marques

Purpose: Physical education (PE) is an important context for promoting health-related cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in youth. Within PE, the lesson context and teacher behavior may be relevant for the promotion CRF; however, evidence is scarce. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess whether students’ CRF improvement in a school year was explained by PE lesson context and teacher behavior. Method: A 1-year observational one-group pretest/posttest study, including 212 students, was conducted. The Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) was used to assess CRF. The PE lesson context and teacher behavior were assessed using the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time. Multivariate linear regression models were performed to examine the effect of time spent in each category of lesson content and teacher behavior on the change in PACER laps from the beginning to the end of the school year. Results: Lesson time spent in gameplay (boys: B = −0.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] [−0.45, −0.02]; girls: B = −0.17, 95% CI [−0.29, −0.04]), time spent by teachers in instruction tasks (boys: B = 0.38, 95% CI [0.17, 0.60]; girls: B = 0.33, 95% CI [0.17, 0.48]), and promoting fitness (girls: B = 1.40, 95% CI [0.60, 2.20]) were associated to PACER improvement. Lesson time spent in general content (boys: B = −0.24, 95% CI [−0.45, −0.02]; girls: B = −0.17, 95% CI [−0.29, −0.04]) and time spent by teachers in management tasks (boys: B = −0.42, 95% CI [−0.70, −0.15]; girls: B = −0.46, 95% CI [−0.63, −0.28]) were negatively associated to PACER. Discussion/Conclusion: Promoting CRF in PE can be achieved by providing active class contexts, such as gameplay, reducing management time, and promoting in-class and out-of-class fitness.