There are basic philosophical and paradigmatic assumptions that guide scholarly research endeavors, including the methods used and the types of questions asked. Through this article, kinesiology faculty and students with interests in adapted physical activity are encouraged to understand the basic assumptions of applied behavior analysis (ABA) methodology for conducting, analyzing, and presenting research of high quality in this paradigm. The purposes of this viewpoint paper are to present information fundamental to understanding the assumptions undergirding research methodology in ABA, describe key aspects of single-subject research designs, and discuss common research designs and data-analysis strategies used in single-subject studies.
Justin A. Haegele and Samuel Russell Hodge
Olivia Cook, Gail Frost, Donna Twose, Linda Wallman, Bareket Falk, Victoria Galea, Allan Adkin, and Panagiota Klentrou
This pilot study examined whether an adapted gymnastics program, CAN-flip, could be a feasible activity for children with cerebral palsy (CP) leading to improvements in muscle fitness, motor performance, and physical self-perception. Four girls and 1 boy (9.8 ± 1.3 yr) with CP participated in this multiple-baseline acrosssubjects design and were randomly assigned to start either the 6-wk gymnastics or the 6-wk control period. Muscle strength, neuromuscular activation, range of motion, gross motor performance, balance, and physical self-perception were assessed at baseline, after the first 6-wk period, and at the conclusion of the study. The gymnastics program comprised two 1-hr individualized classes per week. All participants were able to complete the gymnastics classes without injury and showed improvement in specific gymnastics skills. In addition, 3 of the 5 participants registered for regular gymnastics classes after the study, demonstrating the program’s usability as a link to inclusive gymnastic classes.
ZáNean McClain, Michaela A. Schenkelberg, and Daniel W. Tindall
Edited by Phil Esposito
Heidi Stanish, Carol Curtin, Aviva Must, Sarah Phillips, Melissa Maslin, and Linda Bandini
The authors compared physical activity enjoyment, perceived barriers, beliefs, and self-efficacy between adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing (TD) adolescents. A questionnaire was verbally administered to 35 adolescents with ASD and 60 TD adolescents. Compared with TD adolescents, fewer adolescents with ASD enjoyed team sports (65% vs. 95%, p < .001) and physical education (84% vs. 98%, p = .02). A greater proportion of adolescents with ASD perceived that physical activities were too hard to learn (16% vs. 0%, p < .01), and fewer believed that physical activity was a way to make friends (68% vs. 97%, p < .001). Fewer adolescents with ASD preferred to do physical activity in their free time (25% vs. 58%, p < .01). Most adolescents with ASD felt that physical activity is fun (84%), but the proportion was lower than in TD adolescents (98%, p = .03). Some perceptions about physical activity were similar between the 2 groups, but differences identified may inform program development.
Sangwoo Lee, Ronald Davis, Lawrence W. Judge, Young-Hoo Kwon, Kihoon Han, Jemin Kim, Jaewoong Kim, and Jaehwa Kim
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among release factors (speed, height, and angle) and distance thrown in Paralympic seated shot put. Fortyeight trials performed by 11 men and 5 women during the 2012 US Paralympic trials in track and field were analyzed. With both genders combined, release speed (r = .95, p < .01) and angle (r = .51, p < .01) showed significant correlations to distance thrown. Release speed (r = .94, p < .01) in men and all release factors (r = .60–.98, p < .02) in women showed significant correlations to distance. Release speed and angle were identified as important predictors of the distance, explaining over 89–96% of the variance in distance thrown. Unlike athletes without disability, seated shotputters exhibited significant positive speed–angle correlations (combined: r = .37, p < .01; women: r = .57, p = .03). Application of these results should address a focus in training on generating speed through the release point with a consistent release angle.
Cathy McKay, Martin Block, and Jung Yeon Park
The purpose of this study was to determine if Paralympic School Day (PSD), a published disability awareness program, would have a positive impact on the attitudes of students without disabilities toward the inclusion of students with disabilities in physical education classes. Participants were 143 sixth-grade students who were divided into 2 groups (experimental n = 71, control n = 72), with the experimental group receiving the PSD treatment. Participants responded 2 times to Siperstein’s Adjective Checklist and Block’s Children’s Attitudes Toward Integrated Physical Education–Revised (CAIPE-R) questionnaire. Four ANCOVA tests were conducted. Results indicated a significant PSD treatment effect across all 4 measures: Adjective Checklist (p = .046, η2 = .03), CAIPE-R (p = .002, η2 = .04), inclusion subscale (p = .001, η2 = .05), and sport-modification subscale (p = .027, η2 = .02).
Stefania Korologou, Vassilis Barkoukis, Lambros Lazuras, and Haralambos Tsorbatzoudis
The current study used the transtheoretical model (TTM) as a guiding theoretical framework to assess differences in processes of change, decisional balance, and self-efficacy among deaf individuals with different levels of physical activity. Overall, 146 participants (M age = 26.4 yr, SD = 4.28) completed anonymous questionnaires assessing the dimensions of the TTM, stages of change, processes of change, decisional balance, and self-efficacy. Analysis of variance showed that both experiential and behavioral processes of change were higher in the preparation, action, and maintenance stages than in the other stages. Accordingly, the benefits of physical activity participation were stronger in the preparation stage, whereas the costs were more evident in the precontemplation stage. Finally, self-efficacy at the preparation stage was higher than in the other stages. The findings revealed how different stages of physical activity participation can be explained through the TTM, and the implications for physical activity intervention are discussed.
William R. Falcão, Gordon A. Bloom, and Todd M. Loughead
The purpose of this study was to investigate Paralympic coaches’ perceptions of team cohesion. Seven head coaches of summer and winter Canadian Paralympic sport teams participated in the study. Four participants coached individual sports and 3 coached team sports. Data were collected using semistructured interviews and analyzed using thematic analysis. The results addressed the coaches’ perceptions of cohesion in the Paralympic sport setting and strategies used to foster cohesion with their teams. Participants described using techniques and strategies for enhancing cohesion that were similar to those in nondisability sport, such as task-related activities, goal setting, and regularly communicating with their athletes. They also listed how cohesion was distinct to the Paralympic setting, such as the importance of interpersonal activities to build social cohesion. The implications of these results for coaching athletes with a disability are also presented.