Traditionally, public opinions have largely opposed further compensation for U.S. college athletes, beyond the costs of going to school. This study uses new data from the National Sports and Society Survey (N = 3,993) to assess recent public opinions about allowing college athletes to be paid more than it costs them to go to school. The authors found that a majority of U.S. adults now support, rather than oppose, allowing college athletes to be paid. Also, the authors found that White adults are especially unlikely, and Black adults are especially likely, to support allowing payment. Furthermore, recognition of racial/ethnic discrimination is positively, and indicators of traditionalism are negatively, associated with support for allowing college athletes to be paid.
Chris Knoester and B. David Ridpath
Noora J. Ronkainen, Michael McDougall, Olli Tikkanen, Niels Feddersen, and Richard Tahtinen
Meaning in movement is an enduring topic in sport social sciences, but few studies have explored how sport is meaningful and for whom. The authors examined the relationships between demographic variables, meaningfulness of sport, and craftsmanship. Athletes (N = 258, 61.6% male, age ≥18) from the United Kingdom completed a demographic questionnaire, the Work and Meaning Inventory modified for sport, and the Craftsmanship Scale. Older age and individual sport significantly correlated with higher craftsmanship. Craftsmanship and religion were two independent predictors of meaningfulness, but emphasized somewhat different meaning dimensions. Meaningfulness in sport seems to be related to how athletes approach their craft, as well as their overall framework of life meaning.
Jay Scherer, Judy Davidson, Rylan Kafara, and Jordan Koch
The new urban sporting territory in Edmonton’s city center was constructed within the framework of continued settler colonialism. The main catalyst for this development was sport-related gentrification: a new, publicly financed ice hockey arena for the National Hockey League’s Edmonton Oilers, and a surrounding sport and entertainment district. This two-year ethnography explores this territory, in particular the changing interactions between preexisting, less affluent city-center residents and police, private security, crisis workers, and hockey fans. It reveals how residents navigate the physical and spatial changes to a downtown that are not only structured by revanchism, but by what Rai Reece calls “carceral redlining,” or the continuation of White supremacy through regulation, surveillance, displacement, and dispossession.
L’histoire des leaders du nationalisme au Vietnam a déjà été maintes fois abordée mais celle de leurs lieutenants comporte encore de nombreuses zones d’ombre. Cet article vise à combler une lacune historiographique en analysant la carrière professionnelle et sportive de Hoàng Đo Thúy et Pham Văn Bính. Ces deux acteurs ont joué un rôle important dans la transformation des élites indochinoises et l’avènement de l’indépendance du Vietnam; ce faisant ils ont utilisé des pratiques culturelles occidentales pour provoquer la libération de leur pays.
La dictature qu’a imposé Fulgencio Batista à Cuba de 1952 à 1958 correspond à la catégorie bien particulière des « régimes sultaniques » si l’on suit la typologie proposée par le politiste Juan Linz. Dénués de toute idéologie mobilisatrice, ceux-ci servent avant tout les intérêts personnels du chef de l’État et de son clan. Certains de leurs traits saillants, comme le haut degré de corruption, le népotisme et le manque de professionnalisme, se dégagent clairement de l’analyse des activités de la Comisión nacional de deportes (CND) dirigée par le beau-frère de Batista. Plus près en cela d’un système autoritaire « classique », le clan au pouvoir a tenté de contrôler le mouvement sportif associatif et même de prendre en possession le Comité olympique cubain. La manière dont le mouvement sportif s’est opposé à ces tentatives témoigne de la subsistance d’une société civile intacte. Quant aux grands spectacles sportifs organisés et financés par la CND, ils n’ont guère apporté de la légitimité au gouvernement, étant trop marqués par la corruption et le dilettantisme répandus dans l’appareil d’État. Notre article reconstitue les fonctions et dysfonctionnements de la politique sportive sous Batista en s’appuyant sur de nombreux documents d’archives et des périodiques cubains, et en mettant à l’épreuve le concept de Juan Linz.
Yann Abdourazakou, Xuefei (Nancy) Deng, and Gashaw Abeza
This study sought to examine season ticket holders’ usage of social networking sites during live sport consumption. Informed by uses and gratifications theory, the study examined three types of social media use by fans—Twitter/Facebook posting, Instagram/Snapchat posting, and mobile app use—during a live game. Survey data of 400 season ticket holders of a professional National Basketball Association team were analyzed. Regression results showed that age was a significant predictor of the fans’ in-game social media use in terms of Instagram/Snapchat posting and mobile app use, whereas gender was a significant predictor of their Twitter/Facebook posting behavior. Moreover, the study showed a mixed result for the predicted moderating effect of the season ticket holders’ tenure on the predicted relationships between the two personal characteristics (age and gender) and the three types of social media use. Theoretical and practical implications of the study for sports marketing management are discussed.
Melinda A. Solmon, Kim C. Graber, Amelia Mays Woods, Nancy I. Williams, Thomas J. Templin, Sarah L. Price, and Alison Weimer
This paper evolved from a panel discussion presented at the 2020 American Kinesiology Association Leadership Workshop focused on promoting physical activity through Kinesiology teaching and outreach. The authors consider the role of Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) in promoting physical activity by examining the historical role that PETE has played in what are now Departments of Kinesiology, the status of PETE programs today, and how the future of PETE programs can impact the future of the discipline of Kinesiology. The challenges and barriers that PETE programs face are presented. The role of PETE programs in research institutions is examined, and case studies are presented that demonstrate the complexities the academic units face regarding allocating resources to PETE programs. The consequences of program termination are considered, and the authors then make a case that PETE programs are important to the broader discipline of Kinesiology. The authors conclude by encouraging innovative solutions that can be developed to help PETE programs thrive.
Nancy I. Williams and Alan L. Smith
Marlene A. Dixon, B. Christine Green, Arden Anderson, and Peter Evans
Adolescent sport participants, particularly girls, continue to drop out of sport at alarmingly high rates, which presents an opportunity for new sport programs to enter the marketplace to better cater to those participants. Starting new sport programs, however, presents significant challenges, including acquiring and mobilizing resources in innovative ways. Using theory in sport development and the resource-based view, the authors examined six emergent sport programs for girls within the United States and United Kingdom to identify the resources obtained and mobilized to create new and distinctive sport opportunities in a crowded marketplace. Following a case study approach, data from site visits and interviews with 137 individuals were analyzed using within- and across-case analysis. The findings reveal the resources needed to grow the programs, the ways in which those resources are attained, and strategies to mobilize resource bundles to maximize sport opportunities by differentiating programs from traditional, mainstream sport opportunities. The findings also highlight the distinctive opportunities and challenges for sport organizers in both top-down and bottom-up sport development systems. This study informs theory in sport development and provides insight for creatively designing and delivering sport opportunities that expand overall sport participation for adolescent girls.