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Performance on an Associative Memory Test Decreases 8 hr After Cardiovascular Exercise

Arth R.R. Pahwa, Dylan J. Miller, Jeremy B. Caplan, and David F. Collins

This study was designed to assess the effects of acute exercise on performance of a paired associate learning (PAL) test, an operationalization of hippocampal-dependent associative memory. Participants performed a PAL test and then ran on a treadmill (exercise group, n = 52) or solved Sudoku puzzles (control group, n = 54). Participants returned 2, 5, or 8 hr later to perform a second, different, PAL test. PAL scores for the control group did not change over time. Similarly, scores on tests taken 2 and 5 hr after exercise were not different from baseline or control data. Scores on tests taken 8 hr after exercise, however, fell significantly below baseline (by 8.6%) and control (by 9.8%) scores. These data demonstrate that acute exercise can negatively affect the encoding and retrieval of new information even hours after the exercise bout, which should be a consideration when designing exercise programs to enhance, and not hinder, learning.

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Adolescent Sport Participation and Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Michael J. Panza, Scott Graupensperger, Jennifer P. Agans, Isabelle Doré, Stewart A. Vella, and Michael Blair Evans

Sport may protect against symptoms of mental disorders that are increasingly prevalent among adolescents. This systematic review explores the relationship between adolescent organized sport participation and self-reported symptoms of anxiety and depression. From 9,955 records screened, 29 unique articles were selected that included 61 effect sizes and 122,056 participants. Effects were clustered into four categories based on the operationalization of sport involvement: absence or presence of involvement, frequency of involvement, volume of involvement, and duration of participation. Results from the random-effects meta-analyses indicated that symptoms of anxiety and depression were significantly lower among sport-involved adolescents than in those not involved in sport, although this effect size was small in magnitude. Meta-regression was used to identify how age and sex explained heterogeneity in effects. Although these results do not signify a causal effect, they do support theorizing that sport participation during adolescence may be a protective environment against anxiety and depressive symptoms.

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A Multistudy Cross-Sectional and Experimental Examination Into the Interactive Effects of Moral Identity and Moral Disengagement on Doping

Nicholas Stanger and Susan H. Backhouse

Moral identity and moral disengagement have been linked with doping likelihood. However, experiments testing the temporal direction of these relationships are absent. The authors conducted one cross-sectional and two experimental studies investigating the conjunctive effects of moral identity and moral disengagement on doping likelihood (or intention). Dispositional moral identity was inversely (marginally), and doping moral disengagement, positively, associated with doping intention (Study 1). Manipulating situations to amplify opportunities for moral disengagement increased doping likelihood via anticipated guilt (Study 2). Moreover, dispositional moral identity (Study 2) and inducing moral identity (Study 3) were linked with lower doping likelihood and attenuated the relationship between doping moral disengagement and doping likelihood. However, the suppressing effect of moral identity on doping likelihood was overridden when opportunities for moral disengagement were amplified. These findings support multifaceted antidoping efforts, which include simultaneously enhancing athlete moral identity and personal responsibility alongside reducing social opportunities for moral disengagement.

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The Influence of Fitness-App Usage on Psychological Well-Being and Body Awareness—A Daily Diary Randomized Trial

Lena Busch, Till Utesch, Paul-Christian Bürkner, and Bernd Strauss

Self-tracking via fitness apps is popular and has been described as a means to enhance body awareness and well-being. However, the effects of fitness-app use and specific app functions on well-being and body awareness have yet to be targeted in controlled experimental studies. In two randomized groups, a fitness tracker was used for 6 weeks, and in one group a daily step target was implemented. In a third control group, participants documented their physical activity. A daily diary method was used to measure well-being and body trusting. In Bayesian multilevel analyses, no time, group, or interaction effects were found. These results were robust when controlling for diverse variables. It can be concluded that exercise-related self-tracking and specific step goals do not substantially influence psychological well-being and body trusting. Considering the large variability in effects, potential effects can be assumed under conditions that are to be identified in further studies.

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Examining the Relationships Among Cognitive Acceptance, Behavioral Commitment, Autonomous Extrinsic Motivation, and Physical Activity

Matthew Jenkins, Elaine A. Hargreaves, and Ken Hodge

This study examined the relationships among cognitive acceptance, behavioral commitment, psychological need satisfaction, autonomous extrinsic motivation (EM) for physical activity (PA), and PA behavior. Participants (N = 456, M age = 40.7 years) completed online measures of these variables, and data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results indicated a direct pathway from behavioral commitment to autonomous EM, plus indirect effects via autonomy, competence, and relatedness. There was no direct pathway from cognitive acceptance to autonomous EM, but there were indirect effects via competence and autonomy satisfaction. There was a direct pathway from cognitive acceptance to self-reported PA plus indirect effects via autonomous EM. There was no direct pathway from behavioral commitment to self-reported PA, but there were indirect effects via autonomous EM. Cognitive acceptance and behavioral commitment potentially support the development of autonomous EM for PA. Future research using longitudinal and intervention-based research designs is required to determine the causal relationships among these variables.

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Erratum: Jones, Karageorghis, & Ekkekakis (2014)

The DOI for the article “Can High-Intensity Exercise Be More Pleasant? Attentional Dissociation Using Music and Video,” by Leighton Jones, Costas I. Karageorghis, and Panteleimon Ekkekakis, in the Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology 36(5), was incorrectly printed. The correct DOI for this article is http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/jsep.2013-0251. The online version of this article has been corrected.

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Volume 39 (2017): Issue 2 (Apr 2017)

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Volume 39 (2017): Issue 1 (Jan 2017)

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Volume 39 (2017): Issue s1 (Jan 2017)

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North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity