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Erratum: Anderson et al. (2019)

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No Differences Between Beetroot Juice and Placebo on Competitive 5-km Running Performance: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

Philip Hurst, Samantha Saunders, and Damian Coleman

The authors examine the effect of an acute dose of beetroot juice on endurance running performance in “real-world” competitive settings. In total, 70 recreational runners (mean ± SD: age = 33.3 ± 12.3 years, training history = 11.9 ± 8.1 years, and hours per week training = 5.9 ± 3.5) completed a quasi-randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 5-km competitive time trials. Participants performed four trials separated by 1 week in the order of prebaseline, two experimental, and one postbaseline. Experimental trials consisted of the administration of 70-ml nitrate-rich beetroot juice (containing ∼4.1 mmol of nitrate, Beet It Sport®) or nitrate-depleted placebo (containing ∼0.04 mmol of nitrate, Beet It Sport®) 2.5 hr prior to time trials. Time to complete 5 km was recorded for each trial. No differences were shown between pre- and postbaseline (p = .128, coefficient variation = 2.66%). The average of these two trials is therefore used as baseline. Compared with baseline, participants ran faster with beetroot juice (mean differences = 22.2 ± 5.0 s, p < .001, d = 0.08) and placebo (22.9 ± 4.5 s, p < .001, d = 0.09). No differences in times were shown between beetroot juice and placebo (0.8 ± 5.7 s, p < .875, d = 0.00). These results indicate that an acute dose of beetroot juice does not improve competitive 5-km time-trial performance in recreational runners compared with placebo.

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No Effect of New Zealand Blackcurrant Extract on Recovery of Muscle Damage Following Running a Half-Marathon

Rianne Costello, Mark E.T. Willems, Stephen D. Myers, Fiona Myers, Nathan A. Lewis, Ben J. Lee, and Sam D. Blacker

New Zealand blackcurrant (NZBC) contains anthocyanins, known to moderate blood flow and display anti-inflammatory properties that may improve recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage. The authors examined whether NZBC extract supplementation enhances recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage after a half-marathon race. Following a randomized, double-blind, independent groups design, 20 (eight women) recreational runners (age 30 ± 6 years, height 1.73 ± 0.74 m, body mass 68.5 ± 7.8 kg, half-marathon finishing time 1:56:33 ± 0:18:08 hr:min:s) ingested either two 300-mg/day capsules of NZBC extract (CurraNZ) or a visually matched placebo, for 7 days prior to and 2 days following a half-marathon. Countermovement jump performance variables, urine interleukin-6, and perceived muscle soreness and fatigue were measured pre, post, and at 24 and 48 hr after the half-marathon and analyzed using a mixed linear model with statistical significance set a priori at p < .05. The countermovement jump performance variables were reduced immediately post-half-marathon (p < .05), with all returning to pre-half-marathon levels by 48 hr, except the concentric and eccentric peak force and eccentric duration, with no difference in response between groups (p > .05). Urine interleukin-6 increased 48-hr post-half-marathon in the NZBC group only (p < .01) and remained unchanged compared with pre-half-marathon levels in the placebo group (p > .05). Perceived muscle soreness and fatigue increased immediately post-half-marathon (p < .01) and returned to pre-half-marathon levels by 48 hr, with no difference between groups (p > .05). Supplementation with NZBC extract had no effect on the recovery of countermovement jump variables and perceptions of muscle soreness or fatigue following a half-marathon in recreational runners.

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Training Load and Carbohydrate Periodization Practices of Elite Male Australian Football Players: Evidence of Fueling for the Work Required

Harry E. Routledge, Stuart Graham, Rocco Di Michele, Darren Burgess, Robert M. Erskine, Graeme L. Close, and James P. Morton

The authors aimed to quantify (a) the periodization of physical loading and daily carbohydrate (CHO) intake across an in-season weekly microcycle of Australian Football and (b) the quantity and source of CHO consumed during game play and training. Physical loading (via global positioning system technology) and daily CHO intake (via a combination of 24-hr recall, food diaries, and remote food photographic method) were assessed in 42 professional male players during two weekly microcycles comprising a home and away fixture. The players also reported the source and quantity of CHO consumed during all games (n = 22 games) and on the training session completed 4 days before each game (n = 22 sessions). The total distance was greater (p < .05) on game day (GD; 13 km) versus all training days. The total distance differed between training days, where GD-2 (8 km) was higher than GD-1, GD-3, and GD-4 (3.5, 0, and 7 km, respectively). The daily CHO intake was also different between training days, with reported intakes of 1.8, 1.4, 2.5, and 4.5 g/kg body mass on GD-4, GD-3, GD-2, and GD-1, respectively. The CHO intake was greater (p < .05) during games (59 ± 19 g) compared with training (1 ± 1 g), where in the former, 75% of the CHO consumed was from fluids as opposed to gels. Although the data suggest that Australian Football players practice elements of CHO periodization, the low absolute CHO intakes likely represent considerable underreporting in this population. Even when accounting for potential underreporting, the data also suggest Australian Football players underconsume CHO in relation to the physical demands of training and competition.

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The Impact of a Dairy Milk Recovery Beverage on Bacterially Stimulated Neutrophil Function and Gastrointestinal Tolerance in Response to Hypohydration Inducing Exercise Stress

Ricardo J.S. Costa, Vera Camões-Costa, Rhiannon M.J. Snipe, David Dixon, Isabella Russo, and Zoya Huschtscha

The study aimed to determine the impact of a dairy milk recovery beverage immediately after endurance exercise on leukocyte trafficking, neutrophil function, and gastrointestinal tolerance markers during recovery. Male runners (N = 11) completed two feeding trials in randomized order, after 2 hr of running at 70% V ˙ O 2 max , fluid restricted, in temperate conditions (25 °C, 43% relative humidity). Immediately postexercise, the participants received a chocolate-flavored dairy milk beverage equating to 1.2 g/kg body mass carbohydrate and 0.4 g/kg body mass protein in one trial, and water volume equivalent in another trial. Venous blood and breath samples were collected preexercise, postexercise, and during recovery to determine the leukocyte counts, plasma intestinal fatty acid binding protein, and cortisol concentrations, as well as breath H2. In addition, 1,000 µl of whole blood was incubated with 1 μg/ml Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide for 1 hr at 37 °C to determine the stimulated plasma elastase concentration. Gastrointestinal symptoms and feeding tolerance markers were measured preexercise, every 15 min during exercise, and hourly postexercise for 3 hr. The postexercise leukocyte (mean [95% confidence interval]: 12.7 [11.6, 14.0] × 109/L [main effect of time, MEOT]; p < .001) and neutrophil (10.2 [9.1, 11.5] × 109/L; p < .001) counts, as well as the plasma intestinal fatty acid binding protein (470 pg/ml; +120%; p = .012) and cortisol (236 nMol/L; +71%; p = .006) concentrations, were similar throughout recovery for both trials. No significant difference in breath H2 and gastrointestinal symptoms was observed between trials. The total (Trial × Time, p = .025) and per cell (Trial × Time, p = .001) bacterially stimulated neutrophil elastase release was greater for the chocolate-flavored dairy milk recovery beverage (+360% and +28%, respectively) in recovery, compared with the water trial (+85% and −38%, respectively). Chocolate-flavored dairy milk recovery beverage consumption immediately after exercise prevents the decrease in neutrophil function during the recovery period, and it does not account for substantial malabsorption or gastrointestinal symptoms over a water volume equivalent.

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Metabolic Rate in Adolescent Athletes: The Development and Validation of New Equations, and Comparison to Previous Models

Reid J. Reale, Timothy J. Roberts, Khalil A. Lee, Justina L. Bonsignore, and Melissa L. Anderson

We sought to assess the accuracy of current or developing new prediction equations for resting metabolic rate (RMR) in adolescent athletes. RMR was assessed via indirect calorimetry, alongside known predictors (body composition via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, height, age, and sex) and hypothesized predictors (race and maturation status assessed via years to peak height velocity), in a diverse cohort of adolescent athletes (n = 126, 77% male, body mass = 72.8 ± 16.6 kg, height = 176.2 ± 10.5 cm, age = 16.5 ± 1.4 years). Predictive equations were produced and cross-validated using repeated k-fold cross-validation by stepwise multiple linear regression (10 folds, 100 repeats). Performance of the developed equations was compared with several published equations. Seven of the eight published equations examined performed poorly, underestimating RMR in >75% to >90% of cases. Root mean square error of the six equations ranged from 176 to 373, mean absolute error ranged from 115 to 373 kcal, and mean absolute error SD ranged from 103 to 185 kcal. Only the Schofield equation performed reasonably well, underestimating RMR in 51% of cases. A one- and two-compartment model were developed, both r 2 of .83, root mean square error of 147, and mean absolute error of 114 ± 26 and 117 ± 25 kcal for the one- and two-compartment model, respectively. Based on the models’ performance, as well as visual inspection of residual plots, the following model predicts RMR in adolescent athletes with better precision than previous models; RMR = 11.1 × body mass (kg) + 8.4 × height (cm) − (340 male or 537 female).

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New Zealand Blackcurrant Extract Enhances Muscle Oxygenation During Forearm Exercise in Intermediate-Level Rock Climbers

Simon Fryer, Craig Paterson, Ian C. Perkins, Chris Gloster, Mark E.T. Willems, and Julia A. Potter

The delivery to and utilization of oxygenated hemoglobin to the forearm muscles are key determinants of rock-climbing performance. Anthocyanin-rich New Zealand blackcurrant (NZBC) has been suggested to improve blood flow and may enhance forearm endurance performance. As such, a double-blind, randomized crossover design study with 12 participants performed submaximal intermittent contractions (at 40% maximal voluntary contraction) to failure after a 7-day intake of 600 mg/day NZBC extract or placebo. Minimum tissue saturation index (TSI%) was assessed during the contractions. During recovery, time to half recovery of TSI% and brachial artery blood flow were assessed. There was no difference in time to exhaustion between NZBC and placebo. Minimum TSI% was lower with NZBC extract (43 ± 8 vs. 50 ± 11 TSI%; p = .007; Cohen’s d = 1.01). During recovery, there was no effect on brachial artery blood flow. However, time to half recovery was faster with NZBC (26 ± 17 vs. 42 ± 26 s; p = .001; Cohen’s d = 1.3) following exhaustive contractions. Seven days of NZBC extract appears to improve muscle oxygenation during and following contractions with no change in either arterial blood flow or forearm endurance performance.

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Adaptations in GLUT4 Expression in Response to Exercise Detraining Linked to Downregulation of Insulin-Dependent Pathways in Cardiac but not in Skeletal Muscle Tissue

Alexandre M. Lehnen, Graziela H. Pinto, Júlia Borges, Melissa M. Markoski, and Beatriz D. Schaan

Insulin resistance is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors, and exercise training can improve insulin-mediated glucose uptake. However, few studies have demonstrated the reversibility of exercise-induced benefits. Thus, the authors examine the time–response effects of exercise training and detraining on glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) content, insulin-dependent and insulin-independent pathways in cardiac and gastrocnemius muscle tissues of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Thirty-two male spontaneously hypertensive rats, 4 months old, were assigned to (n = 8/group): T (exercise training: 10-week treadmill exercise, 50–70% maximum effort capacity, 1 hr/day, 5 days/week); D2 (exercise training + 2-day detraining), D4 (exercise training + 4-day detraining); and S (no exercise). The authors evaluated insulin resistance, maximum effort capacity, GLUT4 content, p-IRS-1Tyr1179, p-AS160Ser588, p-AMPKα1Thr172, and p-CaMKIIThr286 in cardiac and gastrocnemius muscle tissues (Western blot). In response to exercise training, there were improvements in insulin resistance (15.4%; p = .010), increased GLUT4 content (microsomal, 29.4%; p = .012; plasma membrane, 27.1%; p < .001), p-IRS-1 (42.2%; p < .001), p-AS160 (60.0%; p < .001) in cardiac tissue, and increased GLUT4 content (microsomal, 29.4%; p = .009; plasma membrane, 55.5%; p < .001), p-IRS-1 (28.1%; p = .018), p-AS160 (76.0%; p < .001), p-AMPK-α1 (37.5%; p = .026), and p-CaMKII (30.0%; p = .040) in the gastrocnemius tissue. In D4 group, the exercise-induced increase in GLUT4 was reversed (plasma membrane, −21.3%; p = .027), p-IRS1 (−37.1%; p = .008), and p-AS160 (−82.6%; p < .001) in the cardiac tissue; p-AS160 expression (−35.7%; p = .034) was reduced in the gastrocnemius. In conclusion, the cardiac tissue is more susceptible to exercise adaptations in the GLUT4 content and signaling pathways than the gastrocnemius muscle. This finding may be explained by particular characteristics of insulin-dependent and insulin-independent pathways in the muscle tissues studied.

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Normative Data for Sweat Rate and Whole-Body Sodium Concentration in Athletes Indigenous to Tropical Climate

Anita M. Rivera-Brown and José R. Quiñones-González

This study determined normative data for sweat rate (SR) and whole-body (WB) sweat sodium concentration [Na+] in athletes indigenous to a tropical climate, categorized by age, gender, and sport classification. We analyzed data from 556 athletes (386 adult and 170 young) in endurance (END), team/ball (TBA), and combat (COM) sports exercising in tropical environments (wet bulb globe temperature = 29.4 ± 2.1 °C). SR was calculated from change in body weight corrected for urine output and fluid/food intake. Sweat was collected using absorbent patches, and regional [Na+] was determined using an ion selective analyzer and normalized to WB sweat [Na+]. Data are expressed as mean ± SD. SR was higher in males compared with females in both young (24.2 ± 7.7 ml·kg−1·hr−1 vs. 16.7 ± 5.7 ml·kg−1·hr−1) and adult (22.8 ± 7.4 ml·kg−1·hr−1 vs. 18.6 ± 7.0 ml·kg−1·hr−1) athletes, in END sports in girls (END = 19.1 ± 6.0 ml·kg−1·hr−1; TBA = 14.6 ± 4.5 ml·kg−1·hr−1), and in adult males (END = 25.2 ± 6.3 ml·kg−1·hr−1; TBA = 19.1 ± 7.2 ml·kg−1·hr−1; COM = 18.4 ± 8.5 ml·kg−1·hr−1) and females (END = 23.5 ± 5.6 ml·kg−1·hr−1; TBA = 14.2 ± 5.2 ml·kg−1·hr−1; COM = 15.3 ± 5.2 ml·kg−1·hr−1); p < .05. WB sweat [Na+] was higher in adult athletes than in young athletes (43 ± 10 mmol/L vs. 40 ± 9 mmol/L, p < .05). These norms provide a reference range for low, low average, average high, and high SR and WB sweat [Na+], which serve as a guide for fluid replacement for athletes who live and train in the tropics.

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Volume 30 (2020): Issue 3 (May 2020)