The stress and coping theory posits that in the face of negative consumption situations, individuals experience a sequential process: primary appraisal, secondary appraisal, and behavioral outcomes. Drawing on the theory, the purpose of the study is to test (a) the mediating effects of coping strategies (i.e., secondary appraisal) between the severity of spectator dysfunctional behavior (SDB; i.e., primary appraisal) and revisit intention and (b) the moderating effects of self-construal (i.e., interdependence vs. independence). Across two studies, using a survey experiment (Study 1) and a repeated-measures survey experiment (Study 2), the findings indicate that coping strategies (i.e., active, expressive, and denial coping) significantly and uniquely mediated the relationship between the severity of SDB (high vs. low) and revisit intention. Furthermore, in responding to highly severe SDB, spectators with interdependent self-construal engaged more in active and expressive coping, and less in denial coping and revisit intention than those with independent self-construal. Overall, the present study highlights (a) the importance of coping strategies for a clearer understanding of the SDB–revisit intention relationship and (b) a boundary condition of self-construal for the influences of SDB on coping strategies and revisit intention.
Kyungyeol (Anthony) Kim, Kevin K. Byon, and Paul M. Pedersen
John Charles Bradbury
This study examines the determinants of Major League Soccer team attendance during the league’s recent era of growth. The estimates indicated that regular-season on-field performance is positively associated with attendance, but the returns to success are diminishing. The estimates identified positive novelty effects for newer teams and soccer-specific stadiums, but not for stadium age. Income and attendance were positively correlated, which indicates that Major League Soccer matches are a normal good. The population size, Hispanic share of the population, presence of other major-league franchises, and number of designated players on a team did not appear to be strong determinants of seasonal attendance.
Jennifer E. McGarry
In her 2019 Earle F. Zeigler address, Jennifer McGarry drew on the 2017 Academy of Management Report “Measuring and Achieving Scholarly Impact” to examine how the field of sport management and the North American Society for Sport Management operationalize impact. She pointed to a broader, more inclusive, and critical examination of impact. McGarry highlighted impact on practice and impact through being explicit, particularly about the ways gender and race affect what we deem to have impact. Finally, she spoke to impact through individual and collective action, such as educating students, scholarship, and policy and advocacy. She provided examples of where we could disrupt the structures that work to maintain the status quo in terms of impact—the in-groups and the out-groups, the metrics and evaluations. She also gave examples of impact that have happened, that are happening, and that can happen even more.
Chris Chard, Liam McCrory, and Kirsty Spence
The Sunnyhill Health & Racquet Club (SHRC) is a very small, private, volunteer-run, not-for-profit club located on a swath of prime real estate in the heart of a wealthy community in Sunnyhill Township. At the behest of the club’s board, SHRC President David Wilson has been tasked with developing financing strategies to address the current (perceived) shortcomings of the club. Like he did for decades working in Post Office Square, in Boston’s Financial District, Wilson knew he had to (1) understand the current financial capacity of SHRC, (2) discern the members’ desire for financial contribution, and (3) develop financing options. Here, strategies to finance improvements to the club include debt utilization (and the necessary servicing of any debt commitments), one-time capital injections through the disposition of club property, and/or enhanced revenue generation. Developing strategies in an environment of disparate stakeholder goals provides additional challenges for Wilson.
Kirstin Hallmann, Anita Zehrer, Sheranne Fairley, and Lea Rossi
This research uses social role theory to investigate gender differences in volunteers at the Special Olympics and interrelationships among motivations, commitment, and social capital. Volunteers at the 2014 National Summer Special Olympics in Germany were surveyed (n = 891). Multigroup structural equation modeling has revealed gender differences among motivations, commitment, and social capital. Volunteers primarily volunteered for personal growth. Further, motivations had a significant association with commitment and social capital. The impact of motivation on social capital was significantly mediated by commitment. Event organizers should market opportunities to volunteer by emphasizing opportunities for personal growth and appealing to specific values.
Jacob K. Tingle, Callum Squires, and Randall Griffiths
This case follows four American college students from a small, Liberal Arts institution during a semester-long, faculty-led study abroad trip to London, England. The case presents the experiences of these students as they integrate into London society. Mainly viewed through the lens of sport, the students encounter many differences to their preconceived notion of how sports work, providing an obvious platform for discussion and comparison of how sport is organized in different parts of the world. Specifically, the case offers students the opportunity to learn about new sports they may not have encountered before, evaluate the U.S. system of sport management, and suggest ways to improve sports both at home and abroad. The international aspect of this case also provides an added cultural element by focusing on specific events in the United Kingdom sporting calendar that can be used to teach students about another country’s sporting identity.
Seungbum Lee, Yongjae Kim, and Tang Tang
To successfully evolve, organizations should change at the same pace as the environment changes. It is particularly important when adapting and utilizing new media technology is a huge part of an organization’s success. Presently, media professionals in all industries including intercollegiate athletics are experiencing a significant change in their work environment due to the ever-changing nature of new media technology. In particular, media convergence, an integration of production by combining both old (e.g., television) and new media (e.g., the Internet), has been one of the most influential phenomena creating unexpected changes and complex dynamics in the current media industry. Nonetheless, what have been previously overlooked in sport communication literature are challenges generated by media convergence, which affects the nature of sport communication. This case study provides a scenario based on semi-fictitious information so that students can critically examine the dynamic nature as well as the effect of media convergence facing sport communication in intercollegiate sport. Further, the students are provided with an opportunity to practice decision-making skills to address the challenges stemming from media convergence. By doing so, discussion regarding media convergence in the context of intercollegiate sport could be better presented to relevant classroom discussion.
James Strode, Melissa Davies, and Heather J. Lawrence
A great deal of sport management literature in recent years draws upon the need for effective quantitative and qualitative research methods. However, there are limited cases for a sport management faculty to effectively teach students proper process, design, and implementation of survey or interview research, particularly for real-world sport applications, such as student-athlete exit interviews. This case aims to fill this gap and outlines a plan for students to identify limitations in current student-athlete exit data collection methods and to learn the common barriers associated with effective research design. Students are made aware of common missteps throughout the research process and are provided foundations for effective survey and interview design. Information taught via this case can also be used across sport management contexts, such as fan experience surveys, retail customer satisfaction surveys, or donor satisfaction interviews.
Yannick Kluch and Amy S. Wilson
In an increasingly diverse sports industry, inclusive excellence becomes an important axiom to engage a variety of stakeholders. This case study outlines the development of the National Collegiate Athletic Association’s (NCAA) inaugural Diversity and Inclusion Social Media Campaign launched by the NCAA’s Minority Opportunities and Interest Committee in partnership with the national Student-Athlete Advisory Committees. The goals of this campaign were to provide the more than 500,000 student-athletes in the NCAA with a platform to create a dialogue on diversity and inclusion on their campuses as well as to communicate the benefit of inclusive environments to the student-athlete experience. By outlining the steps from the campaign idea to its implementation, this case study provides students with the ability to (a) understand a major sport organization’s planning process for a national social media campaign focused on diversity and inclusion, (b) analyze current diversity trends in the sports industry using the NCAA as an example, (c) trace the NCAA membership’s engagement with the campaign, and (d) determine to which extent a campaign such as this one can serve as a starting point for anchoring inclusive excellence in the fabric of intercollegiate athletics departments.