This study investigated sport performers’ coping strategies in response to organizational stressors, examined the utility of Skinner, Edge, Altman, and Sherwood’s (2003) categorization of coping within a sport context, determined the short-term perceived effectiveness of the coping strategies used, and explored appraisal-coping associations. Thirteen national standard swimmers completed semistructured, interval-contingent diaries every day for 28 days. Results revealed 78 coping strategies, which supported 10 of Skinner et al.’s (2003) families of coping. Twenty-four different combinations of coping families were identified. The perceived most effective coping family used in isolation was self-reliance and in combination was escape and negotiation. Stressful appraisals were associated with varied coping strategies. The results highlight the complexity of coping and point to the importance of appraisal-coping associations. Skinner et al.’s (2003) categorization of coping provides a promising conceptual framework for the development of coping research in sport.
Faye F. Didymus and David Fletcher
Anne-Marie Elbe and Ralf Brand
Urine doping controls have become a regular part of athletes’ lives, and approximately one half of all athletes suffer at least once from urination difficulties during these tests. Previous studies could not satisfactorily explain why athletes are affected. This paper examines the relation between urination difficulties during doping controls and psychological reactance. It is assumed that psychological reactance is positively correlated to urination difficulties. The results are based on a study involving 187 German-speaking athletes participating in elite sports at the national team level. In addition to demographic data and information about doping controls, the Psychogenic Urine Retention during Doping Controls Scale (PURDS) and Therapeutic Reactance Scale (TRS) were used. The results do not confirm our hypothesis and indicate that reactance correlates negatively rather than positively to urination difficulties during doping controls. The results are surprising as they suggest that athletes who show low oppositional potential toward doping rules are most strongly affected. Suggestions for interventions are given.
Robert J. Schinke, Gershon Tenenbaum, Ronnie Lidor, and Andrew M. Lane
Within this opportunity to dialogue in commentary exchange about a previously conceived adaptation model, published in the Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, we revisit the utility of our model (Schinke et al., 2012a) and consider Tamminen and Crocker’s (2014) critique of our earlier writing. We also elaborate on emotion and emotion regulation through explaining hedonistic and instrumental motives to regulate emotions. We draw on research from general and sport psychology to examine emotion regulation (Gross, 2010). We argue that when investigating emotion, or any topic in psychology, the process of drawing from knowledge in a different area of the discipline can be useful, especially if the existing knowledge base in that area is already well developed. In particular, we draw on research using an evolutionary perspective (Nesse & Ellsworth, 2009). Accounting for these issues, we clarify the adaptation framework, expand it, and arguably offer a model that has greater utility for use with athletes in relation to training and competition cycles and progressions throughout their career. We also clarify for the readership places of misinterpretation by the commentary authors, and perhaps, why these have resulted.
Brandonn S. Harris and Jack C. Watson II
Recent research has used self-determination theory to examine athlete burnout among adults. However, there is a dearth of theory-driven research investigating burnout among young athletes, particularly as it pertains to its sociological influences. With research suggesting that motives for sport (dis)continuation vary among athletes of different ages, this study assessed the utility of self-determination theory (SDT) and Coakley’s model for youth burnout while examining developmental differences. Participants included swimmers of ages 7–17. Analyses revealed a model that approached adequate ft indices and accounted for 70% of the burnout variance. Results supported utilizing these theories to understand youth burnout while accounting for developmental differences.
Tracey J. Devonport and Andrew M. Lane
The present study used a mixed methods approach to evaluate the usage and perceived effectiveness of a 12-month coping intervention. Twelve junior national netball players followed an intervention that had two objectives: 1) to encourage the use of future-oriented coping across goal-oriented contexts and 2) to facilitate resource accumulation and maintenance by developing coping related competencies. Mentors and players maintained reflective diaries throughout the intervention and were contacted via telephone or e-mail every 2–3 months. In addition, players completed the Brief COPE measure at 1, 6, and 12 months. Eight players and 8 mentors completed postintervention interviews. Data indicated that following completion of the intervention, players perceived themselves to have a better understanding of when and how to use future-oriented coping. They also perceived enhanced psychosocial resources, and a more flexible approach toward goal pursuits. Recommendations for future research developments and the evaluation of coping interventions are presented.
Emmanouil Georgiadis and Irini Papazoglou
World Anti-Doping Association (WADA) is responsible for doping-free sporting contests and is the only sporting body posing relevant competition sanctions. While doping relates to various controversial attitudes and beliefs proposed in the past, the confirmation of a competition ban following a doping violation has many negative connotations for the lives of the athletes. This can elicit multiple significant and far-reaching implications for them and their close ones. Aiming to better understand these implications in an athlete’s life, 5 Greek male and female athletes having recently received a competition ban after a doping violation were interviewed. Qualitative analysis of the data showed that many important psychological, social, and financial implications follow such a sanction. Most importantly, these consequences may even contribute to indications of poor mental and physical health. Discussion of the results provides suggestions for the alleviation of the negative consequences following an involuntary sporting career pause or termination.
Jason Youngman and Duncan Simpson
Researchers have noted that when taken to an excessive level, exercise may become addictive. This study investigated the risk of exercise addiction for triathletes using the Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI; Terry, Szabo, & Griffths, 2004). The sample consisted of 1,285 male and female triathletes, ranging in age from 18–70 years old. Results indicated that approximately 20% of triathletes are at risk for exercise addiction, and that training for longer distance races (i.e., Olympic, Half-Ironman, and Ironman) puts triathletes at greater risk for exercise addiction than training for shorter races (i.e., Sprint). No significant association was found between the risk for exercise addiction and the number of years of participating. However, as the number of weekly training hours increased, so did a triathlete’s risk for exercise addiction. At-risk triathletes need greater clinical attention, and further research should be conducted to help clinicians develop awareness and appropriate interventions.
Katherine A. Tamminen and Peter R.E. Crocker
This paper is a critical commentary on the article “Adaptation Processes Affecting Performance in Elite Sport” (Schinke, Battochio, Lidor, Tenenbaum, Dube, & Lane, 2012). We review relevant literature and highlight theoretical and conceptual concerns regarding Schinke et al.’s model, particularly regarding their characterization of adaptation as a process versus an outcome, and the role of appraisals, emotions, emotional regulation, coping, and Fiske’s (2004) core motives within their model of adaptation. Adaptation or adjustment among elite athletes is a valuable area of research in sport psychology; however, Schinke et al.’s model oversimplifies the adaptation process and has limited utility among sport psychology researchers and practitioners.