This study evaluated the performance of 6 commercially available hard hat designs—differentiated by shell design, number of suspension points, and suspension tightening system—in regard to their ability to attenuate accelerations during vertical impacts to the head. Tests were conducted with impactor materials of steel, wood, and lead shot (resembling commonly seen materials in a construction site), weighing 1.8 and 3.6 kg and dropped from 1.83 m onto a Hybrid III head/neck assembly. All hard hats appreciably reduced head acceleration to the unprotected condition. However, neither the addition of extra suspension points nor variations in suspension tightening mechanism appreciably influenced performance. Therefore, these results indicate that additional features available in current hard hat designs do not improve protective capacity as related to head acceleration metrics.
Arthur Alves Dos Santos, James Sorce, Alexandra Schonning, and Grant Bevill
Jack Thomas Sugden
The growth in mixed martial arts (MMA) gyms worldwide, along with adjunct media discourse has been matched by the number of participants, characterized by the dedication and sacrifice imbued. These factors catalyzed this research which sought initially to understand the motivations of MMA gym members and the role that the training plays in their lives. Through an immersive participant ethnography lasting 3 years, the author trained, socialized, fought, and competed with members of an urban MMA gym in the United Kingdom. The findings focus on the subculture of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu existing within and alongside MMA and where men of diverse ages and creeds follow a path to improved mental health. Drawing from the salutogenic health model and the sociology of health literature, this paper shows that through membership of an MMA gym and dedication to Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, participants embody a version of health that is closely aligned with Antonovsky’s theory of salutogenesis. This theory of health helps explain not only the dedication of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu practitioners and the growth of MMA more broadly but also posits a fresh perspective on the role of alternative physical activities in male mental health redress.
Fraser Carson, Clara McCormack, Paula McGovern, Samara Ralston, and Julia Walsh
This best practice paper reflects on a pilot coach education program designed for women coaching Australian Rules football. Focused on enhancing self-regulation, and underpinned by a growth mindset framework, the “Coach like a Woman” program was delivered to a selected group of female coaches either working in or having been identified with the potential to coach at high-performance levels. This manuscript describes the program content and discusses the key insights identified by the delivery team. Creating a community of practice encouraged the transfer of knowledge and experience between the enrolled coaches, which increased competence and self-confidence. Providing an understanding of behavioral tendencies enhanced positive self-talk and aided self-regulation by the coaches. The delivery of the program and challenges experienced are also discussed. This reflection on the program is provided to assist future developments in coach education.
Carlos Leonardo Figueiredo Machado, Régis Radaelli, Clarissa Muller Brusco, Eduardo Lusa Cadore, Eurico N. Wilhelm, and Ronei Silveira Pinto
An increase in blood pressure (BP) occurs during resistance exercise; attention to this response may be necessary in older individuals with hypertension. We compared the BP responses following high- (HSRE) and moderate-speed resistance exercise (MSRE) (4 × 8 repetitions at 60% one-repetition maximum) and control protocol in 15 older adults with hypertension. HSRE and MSRE increased systolic BP (SBP) by the end of each set compared with preexercise and control protocol. Immediately after the fourth set, a higher SBP was observed in MSRE than HSRE (147 ± 14 vs. 141 ± 12 mmHg; p = .01). Taking an exploratory analysis of the individual response, we observed that MSRE resulted in greater mean changes and number of SBP exposures to values ≥150 mmHg (22-fold) than HSRE (10-fold). Diastolic BP increased (p < .05) with exercise, but only MSRE increased compared with the control condition (p < .05). HSRE may be an alternative for individuals in which SBP peak should be avoided.
Kirsty Forsdike and Simone Fullagar
In this article, we discuss the process and outcomes arising from a unique collaboration involving researchers and professionals to explore key gaps and challenges in sport organizations’ responses to violence against women. Using the World Café method in a 1-day research forum in Victoria, Australia, we brought together state sport organizations, violence against women organizations, and multidisciplinary researchers to reflect upon the multiple contexts that shape violence against women in community sport. Drawing together insights from feminist research and a socioecological perspective, this article contributes to sport management scholarship by using an innovative methodology for collaborative knowledge sharing and creation to explore the challenges and opportunities for organizational action to address violence against women. We advance a gendered lens for understanding how power relations shape sport management practice contexts as well as future research into organizational thinking, research, and responses to violence against women.
Clarice Martins, E. Kipling Webster, Paulo Felipe Ribeiro Bandeira, and Amanda E. Staiano
Fundamental motor skills (FMSs) are building blocks for future movements and may vary according to cultural context. Moreover, network analysis can identify which skills contribute most to an overall set of skills. This study identified the most influential FMS in samples of U.S. and Brazil preschoolers that may contribute to a pattern of adequate motor skills. Participants were 101 Brazilian (55 boys; 47.52 ± 5.57 months of age) and 236 U.S. preschoolers (108 boys; 49.56 ± 8.27 months of age), who provided completed FMS assessments (Test of Gross Motor Development—third edition). Confirmatory factorial analysis was used to test alternative models. To quantify the importance of each variable in the network, the expected influence was calculated, using the network analysis Mplus, Rstudio, and JASP (version 0.14.1). Reduced models with nine and 11 FMS for Brazilian and U.S. preschoolers, respectively, showed adequate adjustment indexes. Jump (1.412) and one-hand strike (0.982) in the Brazilian sample, and hop (1.927) and dribble (0.858) in the U.S. sample, showed the highest expected influence values. This study presents a new perspective to report which are the most important FMS in preschoolers of different sociocultural contexts, which act as building blocks for the acquisition of more complex motor skills.
Zachary Wahl-Alexander and Matthew Curtner-Smith
Purpose: To determine the impact of a training program on the ability of preservice teachers (PTs) to negotiate with their students while teaching through the skill themes approach during an early field experience. Method: Participants were 11 PTs who were given specific training on how to negotiate with their students. Data on their ability to negotiate were collected during the early field experience with six qualitative techniques (journaling, document analysis, participant observation, and formal, informal, and stimulated recall interviews) and were analyzed using standard interpretive techniques. Findings: The training program was effective. Patterns of negotiation observed for both PTs and students improved as the PTs’ skill themes units progressed. The volume of positive negotiations increased and the volume of negative negotiations decreased. Key training program components were lecture/discussions, film, journaling, and role playing. Conclusions: Training PTs to negotiate can help them improve their teaching through the skill themes approach. Ability to negotiate may distinguish between effective and ineffective PTs who otherwise have similar pedagogical skills.
Andrew Sortwell, Michael Newton, Daniel A. Marinho, Jorge Knijnik, and Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo
Offering children chances to optimize their engagement in physical activities during their life span is one of the major aims of school physical education (PE). To this end, the maximum development of motor performance skills can help primary school children participate in various physical activities throughout their lives. The purpose of this review was to examine the effects of plyometric training activities on motor performance skills of children and the application of plyometrics within the PE setting. Relevant studies on the topics of motor performance skills, plyometrics, athlete development, and motor development in children and adolescents were examined. The paper reveals that plyometric training activities can improve motor performance skills such as running, jumping, and kicking. The literature also suggests that children’s exposure to plyometric exercises may result in an accelerated improvement in primary school PE class. This review concludes with a proposal to enhance children’s motor performance skills using plyometric exercises in primary PE classes.
Michele Forgiarini Saccol, Gisele Garcia Zanca, Rafaela Oliveira Machado, Lilian Pinto Teixeira, Rose Löbell, Ann Cools, and Carlos Bolli Mota
Context: Volleyball and handball players have usually been studied collectively as “overhead athletes,” since throwing present similarities in the proximal to distal movement sequencing and upper limb joints ranges of motion. However, each sport presents specificities in the objectives when accelerating the ball and a variety of possible throwing techniques. Therefore, it is expected there may be differences in the shoulder and upper body physical performance between sports. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine if there are differences in shoulder muscle strength and upper body field performance tests between volleyball and handball athletes. Design: Cross-sectional. Methods: Ninety-nine volleyball and handball female athletes aged between 13 and 20 years were evaluated for isometric shoulder abductor and rotator strength (handheld dynamometer) and upper body field performance tests: Y Balance Test—Upper Quarter, modified Closed Kinetic Chain Upper-Extremity Stability Test, and unilateral and bilateral Seated Medicine Ball Throw. Results: Handball athletes presented greater shoulder internal rotation strength (between-group difference: 2.84; effect size 0.70), higher medial (between-group difference: 9.54; effect size 0.90), superolateral (between-group differences: 8.9; effect size 0.68), and composite scores (between-group difference 5.7; effect size 0.75) of the Y Balance Test—Upper Quarter and higher unilateral (between-group difference: 41.92; effect size 0.91) and bilateral (between-group difference: 46.11; effect size 0.83) Seated Medicine Ball Throw performance. Groups were not different for Closed Kinetic Chain Upper-Extremity Stability Test, external rotation, and abduction isometric strength. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that young female handball athletes present greater internal rotator strength and better performance in Y Balance Test—Upper Quarter and Seated Medicine Ball Throw compared to volleyball players. These differences may be related to the different demands required in the throwing movements performed in each sport and should be considered when assessing these populations.