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Validity and Reliability of Finger-Strength Testing in 6 Common Grip Techniques for the Assessment of Bouldering Ability in Men

Karl Söderqvist, Fredrik Identeg, Jonas Zimmerman, Eric Hamrin Senorski, Mikael Sansone, and Henrik Hedelin

Objective: To determine the criterion validity and test–retest reliability of isometric finger-strength testing in 6 differentiated grip techniques for the assessment of bouldering ability among male climbers. Methods: We recruited participants at climbing gyms in Sweden and through online advertisements. We included climbers over 15 years of age with a minimum bouldering performance level of 17 International Rock Climbing and Research Association (IRCRA) for men and 15 IRCRA for women. We tested unilateral, maximal isometric peak finger strength in the front 3 drag, half crimp, closed crimp, 35 sloper, 45 × 90-mm, and 90 × 90-mm pinch through maximal force deloaded of a force plate. We analyzed criterion validity, test–retest reliability, and capacity to determine bouldering performance ability using a stepwise multivariable regression model. Results: Women were excluded from the analysis due to insufficient sample size (n = 16). Thirty-two male participants were included in the primary analysis. The median (interquartile range) age in the advanced and elite group was 27 (25; 35) and 23 (22; 32) years, respectively. The half crimp for the participants’ weak and strong hand displayed the highest ability to determine bouldering grade performance, explaining 48% to 58% of the variance. In the stepwise regression, maximal strength in the half crimp and the front 3 drag collectively explained 66% of the variance for performance. Conclusion: Strength in the half crimp proved the most important performance indicator. The results of this study provide a reliable and valid framework for maximal isometric peak finger-strength testing in advanced and elite male boulderers.

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Validation of a Common Content Knowledge Test for Hiking and Camping

Mert Bilgiç, Alkan Uğurlu, Erhan Devrilmez, Fatih Dervent, and Phillip Ward

Purpose: This study aimed to develop a valid and reliable hiking and camping common content knowledge test for Turkish preservice physical education teachers. Method: Participants were 305 physical education students who had previously completed hiking and camping content course in Physical Education Teacher Education. The researchers followed five steps to develop the test. The Rasch model was utilized for data analysis. Results: Findings showed a good item model fit for all items, except Item 4. Results also indicated that the developed test had high internal consistency for both item difficulty and person ability. Overall, the test findings demonstrated good evidence to support the validity and reliability of hiking and camping common content knowledge test. Discussion/Conclusion: The developed test can be used for measuring hiking and camping knowledge level of physical education teachers and Physical Education Teacher Education students.

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Erratum. What Is Known About Mindfulness and Self-Compassion Among Sport Coaches? A Scoping Review

International Sport Coaching Journal

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Abstracts From the 2023 International Sport + Exercise Nutrition Conference

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Effects of Load and Focus of Attention on Mechanical Parameters During Bench-Press Throw in Resistance-Trained Men

Olaf Prieske, Vidar Andersen, Tom A. Moberg Johansen, and Atle H. Saeterbakken

Purpose: Power output is dependent on the load used during exercise such as bench-press throw (BPT). Attentional focus (external [EXT] vs internal [INT]) during exercise significantly modulates power performance. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of load and attentional focus on mechanical parameters during BPT. Methods: In a crossover study, 31 resistance-trained men (mean age 23.5 [3.0] y) performed BPT at 30% (light), 50% (moderate), and 70% (heavy) of 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) using an INT or EXT focus of attention in randomized order. A linear encoder was used to identify barbell vertical displacement, throw time, peak/average velocity, force, and power during the concentric lifting phase. Results: Statistical analysis revealed significant load × focus interaction effects for velocity and vertical displacement (P ≤ .045; 0.66 ≤ d ≤ 0.89). Post hoc analyses indicated significantly larger velocities and displacements at 30% and 70% of 1-RM in favor of EXT (P ≤ .038; 0.79 ≤ d ≤ 1.13) but similar values at 50% of 1-RM (P > .05). Furthermore, significant main effects of load were found for throw time, force, and power (P < .001; 4.20 ≤ d ≤ 14.0). While time and force gradually increased with higher loads (P < .001; 1.45 ≤ d ≤ 14.0), power output was larger at 50% compared with 30% and 70% 1-RM (P < .001; 3.09 ≤ d ≤ 7.07), irrespective of attentional focus. Conclusions: The present findings indicated that practitioners may use EXT over INT attentional focus to enhance velocity and vertical displacement during BPT at light and heavy loads (ie, 30% and 70% 1-RM). At moderate loads (ie, 50% 1-RM), mechanical bench-press parameters appear to be less affected by attentional focus.

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Encouraging a Unified Framework for Understanding Socialization Into Higher Education

Kevin Andrew Richards and Christopher J. Kinder

Over the past few decades, scholars have directed increasing attention toward the socialization of physical education faculty members’ recruitment, preparation, and ongoing socialization. Parallel research trajectories have, however, resulted in varied approaches to conceptualizing and labeling the phases or types of socialization experienced by this occupational group. With the view of academic journals as spaces for discourse surrounding divergent approaches to conceptualizing and conducting research, the purpose of this research note was to overview two contrasting conceptualizations of physical education teacher education faculty socialization and propose a unified approach for moving forward in future research. Differing perspectives are reviewed, and an updated conceptual framework for understanding socialization into and through academic roles is proposed. We argue that this model better captures the diversity in and provides flexibility for the backgrounds that draw individuals into careers in higher education and their experiences once serving among the faculty in academia.

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Energy Expenditure of Elite Male and Female Professional Tennis Players During Habitual Training

Daniel G. Ellis, James P. Morton, Graeme L. Close, and Tim F. Donovan

Understanding the daily energy expenditure of athletes during training is important to support recovery, adaptation, and the maintenance of performance. The aim of the current research was to assess the total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) and the acute energy expenditure (EE) of tennis training sessions during habitual training of elite tennis players. Using a cohort study design, 27 (n = 10, male; age; 22.3 ± 3.2 years and n = 17, female; age: 23.8 ± 3.5 years) elite singles tennis players were assessed for TDEE and tennis training EE. Using Actiheart activity monitors during a 2- to 5-day training period, male players were analyzed for 26 days and 33 (1.3 ± 0.5 sessions/day) tennis training sessions, and female players for 43 days and 58 (1.2 ± 0.4 sessions/day) tennis training sessions. Male TDEE (4,708 ± 583 kcal/day) was significantly higher than female (3,639 ± 305 kcal/day). Male absolute and relative tennis training EEs (10.2 ± 2.3 kcal/min and 7.9 ± 1.4 kcal·hr−1·kg−1) were significantly higher than those of females (7.6 ± 1.0 kcal/min and 6.8 ± 0.9 kcal·hr−1·kg−1). The resting metabolic rate was assessed via indirect calorimetry. The physical activity level for both groups was 2.3 AU. The TDEE of male and female players during habitual training now highlights the continual cycle of high energy demands experienced by the elite tennis player. The broad ranges of TDEE and EE reported here suggest individual assessment and nutritional planning be prioritized, with a particular focus on carbohydrate requirements.

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The Potential of Sport Education to Satisfy the Basic Psychological Needs of Children From Socially Vulnerable Backgrounds

Juan Á. Simón-Piqueras, David González-Cutre, and Luis M. García López

Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine whether, drawing on the perception of their coaches, the application of the pedagogical model of sport education could be associated with satisfying the basic psychological needs of children from socially vulnerable backgrounds. Method: A 36-session sport education season was implemented within a community program for youths from disadvantaged environments. Three coaches, one researcher, and 31 children aged 9–11 years (17 boys and 14 girls) of diverse ethnicities participated. Qualitative data were obtained through four focus groups conducted during the program in addition to the research diary of the researcher, who played the role of participant observer. Results: The coaches observed a progressive evolution in the satisfaction of the basic psychological needs of competence, autonomy, relatedness, and the need referred to as novelty. Discussion/Conclusion: We may conclude that sport education can be a valuable tool to improve the satisfaction of these needs in children from socially vulnerable backgrounds.

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Ripples in the Water: Physical Education Teacher Education Program Influence on Graduates’ Perceptions of Expanded Physical Activity Programming

Shannon C. Mulhearn, Pamela Hodges Kulinna, Hans van der Mars, Jaimie McMullen, and Michalis Stylianou

Physical educators are often asked to promote whole-school physical activity programming beyond their scheduled class times. Previous research has supported that training in expanded roles would be beneficial during university-based physical education teacher education (PETE) training. In this qualitative study, 13 graduates from a single PETE program that has integrated expanded physical activity into programming shared information about their current programming as physical education teachers in K–12 schools. Campus visits and one-on-one interviews were included. Some practices and values learned during participants’ PETE training were evident in graduates’ current practices. Aligning with previous studies of professional socialization of physical educators, the resulting themes concluded that (a) strategies and resources gained during PETE training were valued and still used and (b) other ripples of influence, such as administrators and other teachers at their current placement, influenced programming. PETE programming with whole-school physical activity can lead to expanded teaching practices in schools.

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Factors Influencing Power-5 Football Coaches’ Recruiting Responsibilities: The Intersection of Race, Role, and Geography

Chris Corr, Christopher Atwater, Allison D. Anders, and Sarah Stokowski

Football Bowl Subdivision football success (i.e., winning) is predicated on the ability to successfully recruit prospective athletes. Reflective of NCAA rules and regulations, assistant (i.e., position) coaches are relied upon to secure the enrollment of prospective athletes. Extant literature has established that Black position coaches are tasked with greater recruiting responsibilities than their White counterparts. Such tasking is indicative of a structural barrier limiting Black coaches’ opportunities for professional advancement. The present study sought to examine recruiting responsibilities among position coaches relative the demography of unique geographic areas they were assigned to recruit. Findings illustrate disproportionate responsibilities among racially dissimilar coaches.