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Erratum. Gender Differences in Students’ Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity Levels During Primary School Physical Education Lessons: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Journal of Teaching in Physical Education

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“I Found Comfort in Exercising”: Exploring Experiences With Exercise for Adults With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Anusha V. Ramji, Eleanor J. Dommett, and Oliver R. Runswick

Little is known about how adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience exercise, resulting in a lack of recommendations for supporting this population. We aimed to explore how adults with ADHD experience exercise as a management tool before and after diagnosis and how and why individuals experience issues related to exercise dependence. Fifteen active adults with a diagnosis of ADHD participated in semistructured interviews. Three overarching themes were identified: (a) exercise as a necessity for ADHD, reflecting the need to exercise before a formal ADHD diagnosis, and use of exercise as a management tool postdiagnosis; (b) goals and achievements to live by, reflecting how exercise patterns revolved around a need to make progress toward targets; and (c) activity or exercise: a roller coaster journey, covering the ups and downs of exercise journeys. This article highlights the importance of exercise for adults to manage ADHD and how this can be encouraged and supported.

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Standing on the Shoulders of Giants: Essential Papers in Sports and Exercise Physiology

Jos J. de Koning and Carl Foster

Purpose: The purpose of this survey was to create a list of essential historical and contemporary readings for undergraduate and graduate students in the field of exercise physiology. Methods: Fifty-two exercise physiologists/sport scientists served as referees, and each nominated ∼25 papers for inclusion in the list. In total, 396 papers were nominated by the referees. This list was then sent back to the referees, with the instructions to nominate the “100 essential papers in sports and exercise physiology.” Results: The referees cast 4722 votes. The 100 papers with the highest number of votes received 51% (2406) of the total number of votes. A total of 37 papers in the list of “100 essential papers” were published >50 years ago, and 63 papers were published since 1973. Conclusions: This list of essential studies will provide a perspective on contemporary studies, the “giant’s shoulders” to enable young scholars to “see further” or to understand where they have “come from.” This compilation is also meant to impress on students that, given the (lack of) technology available in the past, some of the early science required enormous intuitive leaps on the part of historical scientists.

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Social and Emotional Learning Through a Sports-Based Youth Development Program Grounded in a Hybrid Model-Based Practice

Yanhua Shen, Benedict Dyson, Seunghyun Baek, Donal Howley, and Fan Zhang

Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the student’s experiences of social and emotional learning in a community-based youth soccer program grounded in the hybridization of the teaching personal and social responsibility model and the cooperative learning model. Methods: This research was guided by a case study design. Qualitative data were collected over 28 weeks. Twenty-three children (n = 23) participated in the study. Eleven individual interviews, six focus group interviews, two rounds of student drawing activities, and 22 researcher’s self-reflection journals were taken during the program. Inductive analysis and constant comparison were used for data analysis. Results: Four themes were drawn from the collected data: trying your best, respecting each other, learning and working as a team, and making your responsibilities at home and school. Conclusion: The study provided evidence that the hybridization of teaching personal and social responsibility and cooperative learning could be an effective pedagogical approach for students’ social and emotional learning development in sports-based youth development programs.

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Examining the Relationship Between Perceived Coaching Approaches for Life Skills Development and Life Skills Outcomes for High School Athletes

Scott Pierce, Liam O’Neil, Martin Camiré, Corliss Bean, and Scott Rathwell

Promoting life skills is a prominent focus of the mission of high school sports. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived coaching approaches for life skills development and life skills outcomes for high school athletes. A total of 346 athletes participating in high school sports from the United States completed the athlete-reported version of the Coaching Life Skills in Sport Questionnaire (perceived implicit and explicit coaching approaches) and the Life Skills Scale for Sport. Findings from hierarchical and stepwise regression models revealed that perceived implicit and explicit levels of coaching were differentially associated with each of the eight life skills outcomes, with the most consistent and significant predictor of life skills outcomes being structuring and facilitating a positive climate. Findings are discussed in relation to the conceptual and practical utility of the implicit–explicit continuum of life skills development and transfer, the importance of coach and athlete awareness of coaching approaches for life skills development, and recognition of the strengths and limitations of a variety of ontological and epistemological approaches to studying life skills in sport.

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An Opinion on the Interpretation of Bone Turnover Markers Following Acute Exercise or Nutrition Intervention and Considerations for Applied Research

Mark J. Hutson and Ian Varley

It is important for athlete and public health that we continue to develop our understanding of the effects of exercise and nutrition on bone health. Bone turnover markers (BTMs) offer an opportunity to accelerate the progression of bone research by revealing a bone response to exercise and nutrition stimuli far more rapidly than current bone imaging techniques. However, the association between short-term change in the concentration of BTMs and long-term bone health remains ambiguous. Several other limitations also complicate the translation of acute BTM data to applied practice. Importantly, several incongruencies exist between the effects of exercise and nutrition stimuli on short-term change in BTM concentration compared with long-term bone structural outcomes to similar stimuli. There are many potential explanations for these inconsistencies, including that short-term study designs fail to encompass a full remodeling cycle. The current article presents the opinion that data from relatively acute studies measuring BTMs may not be able to reliably inform applied practice aiming to optimize bone health. There are important factors to consider when interpreting or translating BTM data and these are discussed.

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Caffeine Gum Improves Reaction Time but Reduces Composure Versus Placebo During the Extra-Time Period of Simulated Soccer Match-Play in Male Semiprofessional Players

Adam Field, Liam Corr, Laurence Birdsey, Christina Langley, Ben Marshall, Greg Wood, Mark Hearris, Diogo Martinho, Christa Carbry, Robert Naughton, James Fleming, Magni Mohr, Peter Krustrup, Mark Russell, and Liam David Harper

This study aimed to determine whether caffeine gum influenced perceptual-cognitive and physical performance during the extra-time period of simulated soccer match-play. Semiprofessional male soccer players (n = 12, age: 22 ± 3 years, stature: 1.78 ± 0.06 m, mass: 75 ± 9 kg) performed 120-min soccer-specific exercise on two occasions. In a triple-blind, randomized, crossover design, players chewed caffeinated (200 mg; caffeine) or control (0 mg; placebo) gum for 5 min following 90 min of soccer-specific exercise. Perceptual-cognitive skills (i.e., passing accuracy, reaction time, composure, and adaptability) were assessed using a soccer-specific virtual reality simulator, collected pre- and posttrial. Neuromuscular performance (reactive-strength index, vertical jump height, absolute and relative peak power output, and negative vertical displacement) and sprint performance (15 and 30 m) were measured at pretrial, half-time, 90 min, and posttrial. Caffeine gum attenuated declines in reaction time (pre: 90.8 ± 0.8 AU to post: 90.7 ± 0.8 AU) by a further 4.2% than placebo (pre: 92.1 ± 0.8 AU to post: 88.2 ± 0.8 AU; p < .01). Caffeine gum reduced composure by 4.7% (pre: 69.1 ± 0.8 AU to post: 65.9 ± 0.8 AU) versus placebo (pre: 68.8 ± 0.8 AU to post: 68.3 ± 0.8 AU; p < .01). Caffeine gum did not influence any other variables (p > .05). Where caffeine gum is consumed by players prior to extra-time, reaction time increases but composure may be compromised, and neuromuscular and sprint performance remain unchanged. Future work should assess caffeine gum mixes with substances like L-theanine that promote a relaxed state under stressful conditions.

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Effects of Phenylcapsaicin on Intraocular and Ocular Perfusion Pressure During a 30-Min Cycling Task: A Placebo-Controlled, Triple-Blind, Balanced Crossover Study

Paula M. Lara Vázquez, María Dolores Morenas-Aguilar, Sara Chacón Ventura, Pablo Jiménez-Martínez, Carlos Alix-Fages, Amador García Ramos, Jesús Vera, and Beatriz Redondo

The main objective of this placebo-controlled, triple-blind, balanced crossover study was to assess the acute effects of phenylcapsaicin (PC) intake (2.5 mg) on intraocular pressure (IOP), ocular perfusion pressure (OPP), and heart rate (HR) during a 30-min cycling task performed at 15% of the individual maximal power. Twenty-two healthy young adults performed the cycling task 45 min after ingesting PC or placebo. IOP was measured with a rebound tonometer before exercise, during cycling (every 6 min), and after 5 and 10 min of recovery. OPP was assessed before and after exercise. HR was monitored throughout the cycling task. We found an acute increase of IOP levels related to PC consumption while cycling (mean difference = 1.91 ± 2.24 mmHg; p = .007, η p 2 = .30 ), whereas no differences were observed for OPP levels between the PC and placebo conditions (mean difference = 1.33 ± 8.70 mmHg; p = .608). Mean HR values were higher after PC in comparison with placebo intake (mean difference = 3.11 ± 15.87 bpm, p = .019, η p 2 = .24 ), whereas maximum HR did not differ between both experimental conditions (p = .199). These findings suggest that PC intake before exercise should be avoided when reducing IOP levels is desired (e.g., glaucoma patients or those at risk). Future studies should determine the effects of different ergogenic aids on IOP and OPP levels with other exercise configurations and in the long term.

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“Falling Behind,” “Letting Go,” and Being “Outsprinted” as Distinct Features of Pacing in Distance Running

Carl Foster, Renato Barroso, Daniel Bok, Daniel Boullosa, Arturo Casado Alda, Cristina Cortis, Andrea Fusco, Brian Hanley, Philip Skiba, and Jos J. de Koning

Introduction: In distance running, pacing is characterized by changes in speed, leading to runners dropping off the leader’s pace until a few remain to contest victory with a final sprint. Pacing behavior has been well studied over the last 30 years, but much remains unknown. It might be related to finishing position, finishing time, and dependent on critical speed (CS), a surrogate of physiologic capacity. We hypothesized a relationship between CS and the distance at which runners “fell behind” and “let go” from the leader or were “outsprinted” as contributors to performance. Methods: 100-m split times were obtained for athletes in the men’s 10,000-m at the 2008 Olympics (N = 35). Split times were individually compared with the winner at the point of “falling behind” (successive split times progressively slower than the winner), “letting go” (large increase in time for distance compared with winner), or “outsprinted” (falling behind despite active acceleration) despite being with the leader with 400 m remaining. Results: Race times ranged between 26:55 and 29:23 (world record = 26:17). There were 3 groups who fell behind at ∼1000 (n = 11), ∼6000 (n = 16), and ∼9000 m (n = 2); let go at ∼4000 (n = 10), ∼7000 (n = 14), and ∼9500 m (n = 5); or were outkicked (n = 6). There was a moderate correlation between CS and finishing position (r = .82), individual mean pace (r = .79), “fell behind” distance (r = .77), and “let go” distance (r = .79). D′ balance was correlated with performance in the last 400 m (r = .87). Conclusions: Athletes displayed distinct patterns of falling behind and letting go. CS serves as a moderate predictor of performance and final placing. Final placing during the sprint is related to preservation of D′ balance.

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Football Movement Profile–Based Creatine-Kinase Prediction Performs Similarly to Global Positioning System–Derived Machine Learning Models in National-Team Soccer Players

Gabor Schuth, György Szigeti, Gergely Dobreff, Alija Pašić, Tim Gabbett, Adam Szilas, and Gabor Pavlik

Purpose: The relationship between external load and creatine-kinase (CK) response at the team/position or individual level using Global Positioning Systems (GPS) has been studied. This study aimed to compare GPS-derived and Football Movement Profile (FMP) –derived CK-prediction models for national-team soccer players. The second aim was to compare the performance of general and individualized CK prediction models. Methods: Four hundred forty-four national-team soccer players (under 15 [U15] to senior) were monitored during training sessions and matches using GPS. CK was measured every morning from whole blood. The players had 19.3 (18.1) individual GPS-CK pairs, resulting in a total of 8570 data points. Machine learning models were built using (1) GPS-derived or (2) FMP-based parameters or (3) the combination of the 2 to predict the following days’ CK value. The performance of general and individual-specific prediction models was compared. The performance of the models was described by R 2 and the root-mean-square error (RMSE, in units per liter for CK values). Results: The FMP model (R 2 = .60, RMSE = 144.6 U/L) performed similarly to the GPS-based model (R 2 = .62, RMSE = 141.2 U/L) and the combination of the 2 (R 2 = .62, RMSE = 140.3 U/L). The prediction power of the general model was better on average (R 2 = .57 vs R 2 = .37) and for 73% of the players than the individualized model. Conclusions: The results suggest that FMP-based CK-prediction models perform similarly to those based on GPS-derived metrics. General machine learning models’ prediction power was higher than those of the individual-specific models. These findings can be used to monitor postmatch recovery strategies and to optimize weekly training periodization.