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Ryan D. Burns, Youngwon Kim, Wonwoo Byun and Timothy A. Brusseau

Background: To examine the relationships among school day sedentary times (SED), light physical activity (LPA), and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with gross motor skills in children using Compositional Data Analysis. Methods: Participants were 409 children (mean age = 8.4 [1.8] y) recruited across 5 low-income schools. Gross motor skills were assessed using the test for gross motor development—third edition (TGMD-3), and physical activity was assessed using accelerometers. Isometric log-ratio coordinates were calculated by quantifying the relative proportion of percentage of the school day spent in SED, LPA, and MVPA. The associations of the isometric log-ratio coordinates with the TGMD-3 scores were estimated using general linear mixed-effects models adjusted for age, body mass index, estimated aerobic capacity, and school affiliation. Results: A higher proportion of the school day spent in %MVPA relative to %SED and %LPA was significantly associated with higher TGMD-3 total scores (γ MVPA = 14.44, P = .01). This relationship was also observed for the ball skills subtest scores (γ MVPA = 16.12, P = .003). Conclusions: Replacing %SED and %LPA with %MVPA during school hours may be an effective strategy for improving gross motor skills, specifically ball skills, in low-income elementary school-aged children.

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Stephanie L. Stockwell, Lindsey R. Smith, Hannah M. Weaver, Daniella J. Hankins and Daniel P. Bailey

Background: The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between sedentary behavior patterns and cardiometabolic risk in children using a monitor that accurately distinguishes between different postures. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 118 children (67 girls) aged 11–12 years had adiposity, blood pressure, lipids, and glucose measured, and then they wore an activPAL device to record sitting, standing, and stepping for 7 consecutive days. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression. Results: After adjustment for potential confounders and moderate to vigorous physical activity, the number of breaks in sitting was significantly negatively associated with adiposity (standardized β ≥ −0.546; P ≤ .001) and significantly positively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (β = 0.415; P ≤ .01). Time in prolonged sitting bouts was significantly negatively associated with adiposity (β ≥ −0.577; P ≤ .001) and significantly positively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (β = 0.432; P ≤ .05). Standing time was significantly negatively associated with adiposity (β ≥ −0.270; P ≤ .05) and significantly positively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (β = 0.312; P ≤ .05). Conclusions: This study suggests that increasing the number of breaks in sitting and increasing standing time are beneficially associated with cardiometabolic risk and should be considered in health promotion interventions in children.

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Adilson Santos Andrade de Sousa, Marilia A. Correia, Breno Quintella Farah, Glauco Saes, Antônio Eduardo Zerati, Pedro Puech-Leao, Nelson Wolosker, Gabriel G. Cucato and Raphael M. Ritti-Dias

This cross-sectional study compared physical activity levels and barriers between 212 men and women with symptomatic peripheral artery disease. Physical activity was objectively measured by an accelerometer. Barriers to physical activity were obtained using a validated questionnaire. Women reported higher amounts of light physical activity (p < .001) and lower moderate–vigorous physical activity (p < .001) than men. Women more often reported barriers such as “not having anyone to accompany” (p = .006), “lack of money” (p = .018), “fear of falling or worsening the disease” (p = .010), “lack of security” (p = .015), “not having places to sit when feeling leg pain” (p = .021), and “difficulty in getting to a place to practice physical activity” (p = .015). In conclusion, women with symptomatic peripheral artery disease presented with lower amounts of moderate–vigorous activity and more barriers to activity than men. Strategies to minimize the barriers, including group actives and nonpainful exercises, are recommended for women with peripheral artery disease.

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Valerie Senkowski, Clara Gannon and Paul Branscum

Physical activity interventions among older adults vary widely in the techniques used to elicit behavior change. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine what behavior change techniques (BCTs) are used in interventions to increase physical activity among older adults using the theory of planned behavior and to make suggestions for BCTs that appear to be more effective. A database search identified peer-reviewed articles documenting interventions based on the theory of planned behavior. Seven articles (three randomized controlled trial, three quasi-experimental, and one n-of-1) from four countries (the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, and the Netherlands) were included for review. Researchers independently coded BCTs using a hierarchical taxonomy of 93 BCTs. The most frequently coded BCTs included Goal Setting (n = 5 studies), Action Planning (n = 5 studies), and Credible Source (n = 5 studies). Of the 93 BCTs in the taxonomy, only 26 were used, indicating potential opportunities to implement and evaluate less commonly used techniques in future studies.

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Baptiste Fournier, Maxime Lussier, Nathalie Bier, Johanne Filiatrault, Manon Parisien, Miguel Chagnon and Marie-Ève Mathieu

The authors examined the effects of a 12-week pole walking program on function and well-being in 123 older adults aged 60 years and older, recruited by community organizations. The results showed a significant improvement in the participants’ upper and lower limb strength in the experimental groups compared with those in the control groups (p < .05) and a significant deterioration in the walking speed and grip strength in women in the control groups compared with those in the experimental groups (p < .05). Although not statistically significant, the results also showed a trend toward greater improvement in global cognitive function in the participants in the experimental groups (p = .076). These results suggest that a pole walking program provided in natural conditions can improve physical capabilities in older adults. Other studies are warranted to further explore the impact of pole walking programs on older adults offered in such conditions, especially their impact on cognitive functions.

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Leslie K. Larsen and Christopher J. Clayton

In 2017–2018, more than 60% of NCAA Division I women’s basketball (DI WBB) players identified as women of color, while less than 17% of the head coaches of DI WBB teams identified as women of color. Larsen, Fisher, and Moret suggested differences in career pathways between black female head coaches and their white female and white and black male counterparts could be one explanation for the aforementioned discrepancy. However, there is currently limited research on the career pathways of DI WBB head coaches to support Larsen and colleagues’ hypothesis. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the career pathways of DI WBB head coaches to identify race and gender differences. To accomplish this, a content analysis was conducted on the online biographies of head coaches from all 351 DI WBB programs. Significant differences between groups were found in the number of years coaching in DI women’s basketball prior to receiving a first DI head coaching position; both white women (M = 6.97) and women of color (M = 7.94) had significantly more years in DI WBB coaching than white males (M = 4.95; F(3, 348) = 4.63, p = .003). Further, chi-square tests revealed a significant relationship between the race and gender of a coach and the highest level of playing experience and education. These results indicate that race and gender play a significant role in determining what pathway is required to obtain an DI WBB head coaching position. In addition to these research findings, practical implications are discussed.

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Astrid C.J. Balemans, Han Houdijk, Gilbert R. Koelewijn, Marjolein Piek, Frank Tubbing, Anne Visser-Meily and Olaf Verschuren

Background: It is questionable whether postures that are regarded as sedentary behavior in able-bodied persons evoke comparable physiological responses in adults with stroke or cerebral palsy (CP). This study aimed to compare metabolic demand and muscle activity in healthy controls, adults with stroke, and adults with CP during sedentary behavior and light physical activities. Methods: Seventy-one adults (45.6 [18.9] y, range 18–86) participated in this study, of which there were 18 controls, 31 with stroke, and 22 with CP. The metabolic equivalent of task (MET) and level of muscle activation were assessed for different sedentary positions (sitting supported and unsupported) and light physical activities (standing and walking). Results: During sitting supported and unsupported, people with mild to moderate stroke and CP show comparable MET and electromyographic values as controls. While sitting unsupported, people with severe stroke show higher METs and electromyographic values (P < .001), and people with severe CP only show higher METs compared with controls (P < .05) but all below 1.5 METs. Standing increased electromyographic values in people with severe stroke or CP (P < .001) and reached values above 1.5 METs. Conclusions: Physiologic responses during sedentary behavior are comparable for controls and adults with mild to moderate stroke and CP, whereas higher metabolic demands and muscle activity (stroke only) were observed in severely affected individuals.

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Alessandra Prioreschi and Lisa K. Micklesfield

Background: This study reported compliance with 24-hour physical activity and sedentary behavior guidelines, and associations with adiposity in the first 2 years of life. Methods: Participants (N = 119) were recruited from Soweto, South Africa. Visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue was measured by ultrasound. Participation in 2 movement behaviors (physical activity and sedentary time) was reported by mothers. Differences in adiposity between those meeting each individual guideline, as well as the combination of both movement guidelines, compared with those not meeting the guidelines were assessed. Results: Only 5% of infants met the sedentary guidelines; however, 58% met the physical activity guidelines. Subcutaneous adipose tissue was significantly higher in those meeting the physical activity guideline (0.50 [0.01] vs 0.47 [0.01] cm, P = .03) compared with those not meeting the guideline. Meeting the screen time component of the sedentary guideline was associated with higher visceral adipose tissue (β = 0.96, P < .01), while meeting one guideline compared with meeting none was associated with higher subcutaneous adipose tissue (β = 0.05, P = .01). Conclusions: Most infants and toddlers from this low- to middle-income setting were not meeting sedentary behavior guidelines. Both behaviors were associated with abdominal adiposity, but not with body mass index z score; implying these movement behaviors may impact abdominal fat deposition rather than body size.

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Christina M. Patch, Caterina G. Roman, Terry L. Conway, Ralph B. Taylor, Kavita A. Gavand, Brian E. Saelens, Marc A. Adams, Kelli L. Cain, Jessa K. Engelberg, Lauren Mayes, Scott C. Roesch and James F. Sallis

Background: A common hypothesis is that crime is a major barrier to physical activity, but research does not consistently support this assumption. This article advances research on crime-related safety and physical activity by developing a multilevel conceptual framework and reliable measures applicable across age groups. Methods: Criminologists and physical activity researchers collaborated to develop a conceptual framework. Survey development involved qualitative data collection and resulted in 155 items and 26 scales. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were computed to assess test–retest reliability in a subsample of participants (N = 176). Analyses were conducted separately by age groups. Results: Test–retest reliability for most scales (63 of 104 ICCs across 4 age groups) was “excellent” or “good” (ICC ≥ .60) and only 18 ICCs were “poor” (ICC < .40). Reliability varied by age group. Adolescents (aged 12–17 y) had ICCs above the .40 threshold for 21 of 26 scales (81%). Young adults (aged 18–39 y) and middle-aged adults (aged 40–65 y) had ICCs above .40 for 24 (92%) and 23 (88%) scales, respectively. Older adults (aged 66 y and older) had ICCs above .40 for 18 of 26 scales (69%). Conclusions: The conceptual framework and reliable measures can be used to clarify the inconclusive relationships between crime-related safety and physical activity.

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Zachary Zenko and Panteleimon Ekkekakis

Studies of automatic associations of sedentary behavior, physical activity, and exercise are proliferating, but the lack of information on the psychometric properties of relevant measures is a potential impediment to progress. The purpose of this review was to critically summarize measurement practices in studies examining automatic associations related to sedentary behavior, physical activity, and exercise. Of 37 studies, 27 (73%) did not include a justification for the measure chosen to assess automatic associations. Additional problems have been noted, including the nonreporting of psychometric information (validity, internal consistency, test–retest reliability) and the lack of standardization of procedures (e.g., number, type of stimuli). The authors emphasize the need to select measures based on conceptual arguments and psychometric evidence and to standardize measurement procedures. To facilitate progress, the review concludes with a proposal for conceptually appropriate validation criteria to be used in future studies.