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Accelerometer-Based Estimates of Physical Activity and Sedentary Time Among Samoan Adults

Nicola L. Hawley, Parmida Zarei, Scott E. Crouter, Mayur M. Desai, Alysa Pomer, Anna C. Rivara, Take Naseri, Muagututia Sefuiva Reupena, Satupaitea Viali, Rachel L. Duckham, and Stephen T. McGarvey

Background: The prevalence of obesity-related cardiometabolic disease in Samoa is among the highest globally. While physical activity is a modifiable risk factor for obesity-related disease, little is known about physical activity levels among adult Samoans. Using wrist-worn accelerometer-based devices, this study aimed to characterize physical activity among Samoan adults. Methods: Samoan adults (n = 385; 55% female, mean [SD] age 52 [10] y) wore Actigraph GT3X+ devices for 7 to 10 days. General linear models were used to examine mean daily minutes of sedentary time, light physical activity, and moderate to vigorous physical activity by various participant characteristics. Results: Time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity did not differ statistically between men (88 [5] min; 95% confidence interval [CI], 80–97) and women (78 [4] min; 95% CI, 70–86; P = .08). Women, however, spent more time than men in light physical activity: 380 (7) minutes (95% CI, 367–393) versus 344 (7) minutes (95% CI, 329–358; P < .001). While there were no differences in physical activity by census region, education, or occupation among women, men in urban areas spent significantly less time in moderate to vigorous physical activity than those in peri-urban and rural areas (P = .015). Women with class II/III obesity spent more time in sedentary activities than those with healthy weight or overweight/class I obesity (P = .048). Conclusions: This study characterizes physical activity among Samoan adults and highlights variation by sex, urbanicity, and weight status. In providing initial device-measured estimates of physical activity in Samoa, this analysis establishes a baseline from which the success of future attempts to intervene on physical activity may be assessed.

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Celebrating 10 Years of the Global Observatory for Physical Activity—GoPA!

Michael Pratt, Andrea Ramírez Varela, and Pedro C. Hallal

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Self-Reported Physical Activity and Mental Health Among Asylum Seekers in a Refugee Camp

Konstantinia Filippou, Florian Knappe, Antonis Hatzigeorgiadis, Ioannis D. Morres, Emmanouil Tzormpatzakis, Elsa Havas, Uwe Pühse, Yannis Theodorakis, and Markus Gerber

Background: Global forced displacement has been rising steeply since 2015 as a result of wars and human rights abuses. Forcibly displaced people are often exposed to physical and mental strain, which can cause traumatic experiences and poor mental health. Physical activity has been linked with better mental health, although such evidence is scarce among those populations. The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships of self-reported physical activity and fitness with mental health indices among people residing in a refugee camp in Greece as asylum seekers. Methods: Participants were 151 individuals (76 women, 75 men; mean age 28.90 y) displaced from their homes for an average of 32.03 months. Among them, 67% were from Afghanistan and countries from southwest Asia, and 33% from sub-Saharan African countries. Participants completed self-report measures assessing physical activity, fitness, symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety, and well-being. Results: High prevalence of mental health disorder symptoms and poor well-being were identified, with women and Asians showing poorer mental health. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety were related to perceived fitness, but not to self-reported physical activity. Regression analysis showed that perceived fitness (β: 0.34; 95% CI, 0.43 to 1.52) and low-intensity physical activity (β: 0.24; 95% CI, 0.001 to 0.009) significantly positively predicted well-being, showing small to medium effect. Conclusions: The findings provide useful insights regarding the link between physical activity and well-being; nevertheless, further research examining objectively measured physical activity is warranted to complement these data and further explore the associations between physical activity and mental health.

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Erratum. Comparison of High-Intensity Training Versus Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training on Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Body Fat Percentage in Persons With Overweight or Obesity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Journal of Physical Activity and Health

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Erratum. Pandemic-Related Life Events and Physical Inactivity During COVID-19 Among Israeli Adults: The Smoking and Lifestyles in Israel Study

Journal of Physical Activity and Health

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The Day-Level Association Between Child Care Attendance and 24-Hour Movement Behaviors in Preschool-Aged Children

Hannah Parker, Sarah Burkart, Layton Reesor-Oyer, Lauren von Klinggraeff, Christopher D. Pfledderer, Elizabeth Adams, Robert G. Weaver, Michael W. Beets, and Bridget Armstrong

Background: Twenty-four hour movement behaviors (ie, physical activity [PA], screen time [ST], and sleep) are associated with children’s health outcomes. Identifying day-level contextual factors, such as child care, that positively influence children’s movement behaviors may help identify potential intervention targets, like improving access to child care programs. This study aimed to examine the between- and within-person effects of child care on preschoolers’ 24-hour movement behaviors. Methods: Children (N = 74, 4.7 [0.9] y, 48.9% girls, 63.3% White) wore an Axivity AX3 accelerometer on their nondominant wrist 24 hours per day for 14 days to measure PA and sleep. Parents completed surveys each night about their child’s ST and child care attendance that day. Linear mixed effects models predicted day-level 24-hour movement behaviors from hours spent in child care. Results: Children spent an average of 5.0 (2.9) hours per day in child care. For every additional hour of child care above their average, children had 0.3 hours (95% CI, −0.3 to −0.2) less ST that day. Between-person effects showed that compared with children who attended fewer overall hours of child care, children who attended more hours had less overall ST (B = −0.2 h; 95% CI, −0.4 to 0.0). Child care was not significantly associated with PA or sleep. Conclusions: Child care attendance was not associated with 24-hour PA or sleep; however, it was associated with less ST. More research utilizing objective measures of ST and more robust measures of daily schedules or structure is necessary to better understand how existing infrastructure may influence preschool-aged children’s 24-hour movement behaviors. In addition, future research should consider how access to child care may influence child care attendance.

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Development of the Fit&Fab Exercise Intervention for Women With Obesity: A Community Advisory Board Informed Process

Lucia A. Leone, Leah N. Vermont, Angelica Tutasi-Lozada, and Laura Anderson

Background: Women with higher body mass index report low rates of and face unique barriers to exercise. Increasing exercise participation can improve mental and physical health independent of weight loss; however, most exercise programs targeting this population focus predominately on losing weight. This paper aims to describe the development of Fit&Fab, a community-based exercise intervention focused on increasing exercise participation and enjoyment for women with obesity. Methods: In partnership with the YMCA, we recruited women ages 35–64 years (body mass index ≥ 30) to participate in 4 focus groups to understand exercise preferences. Formative work was used to identify theory constructs and associated intervention components. Women from the focus groups were recruited for a community advisory board that finalized the intervention design, recruitment, and evaluation plan. Results: Focus groups participants (N = 29) preferred to exercise without men and wanted a cohort-style class that included women of similar exercise levels and body types, incorporated social support, fun activities, and broke exercise into smaller bouts. They wanted a supportive instructor who was fit but understood weight-related challenges. The community advisory board and research team used focus group findings to inform design of the final intervention including group exercise classes, psychosocial support sessions, personalized training, exercise tracking, outcome monitoring, and rewards. Conclusions: Our findings emphasize the need to focus on exercise enjoyment and benefits other than losing weight to improve exercise participation among women with higher body mass index. In addition to having outcomes other than weight loss, exercise interventions with this population should also consider group composition, instructor, and class format.

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Perceived Barriers to Physical Activity Among Youth Living in Rural and Urban Canadian Communities: A Nationally Representative Cross-Sectional Study

Taru Manyanga, Nicole White, Larine Sluggett, Annie Duchesne, David Anekwe, and Chelsea Pelletier

Background: We used nationally representative data to explore associations among location of residence (rural/urban) and perceived barriers to physical activity (PA) in Canadian youth. Methods: We analyzed the 2017 Canadian Community Health Survey, Barriers to Physical Activity Rapid Response data for 12- to 17-year-old youth. Nine items from the survey assessing perceived barriers to PA were combined into 3 barrier domains: resources, motivational, and socioenvironmental. The likelihood of reporting barriers to PA based on rural–urban location was examined using survey-weighted binary logistic regression following a model fitting approach. Sociodemographic factors were modeled as covariates and tested in interaction with location. For each barrier domain, we derived the best-fitting model with fewest terms. Results: There were no location-specific effects related to reporting any barrier or motivation-related PA barriers. We found a sex by location interaction predicting the likelihood of reporting resource-related barriers. Rural boys were less likely to report resource-related barriers compared with urban boys (odds ratio [OR] = 0.42 [0.20, 0.88]). Rural girls were more likely to report resource-related barriers compared with boys (OR = 3.72 [1.66, 8.30]). Regarding socioenvironmental barriers, we observed a significant body mass index by location interaction demonstrating that rural youth with body mass index outside the “normal range” showed a higher likelihood of reporting socioenvironmental barriers compared with urban youth (OR = 2.38 [1.32, 4.30]). For urban youth, body mass index was unrelated to reporting socioenvironmental barriers (OR = 1.07 [0.67, 1.71]). Conclusion: PA barriers are not universal among Canadian youth. Our analyses highlight the importance of testing interactions in similar studies as well as considering key sociodemographic characteristics when designing interventions.

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Gender Differences in Physical Activity and Health-Related Authorships Between 1950 and 2019

Eduardo Ribes Kohn, Pedro Curi Hallal, Gloria Isabel Niño-Cruz, Julia Almentero, Diana Pinzón, Maristela Böhlke, Katja Siefken, Michael Pratt, and Andrea Ramirez-Varela

Background: The objective of this study was to investigate gender differences in authorship in physical activity and health research. Methods: A bibliometric study including 23,399 articles from 105 countries was conducted to estimate the participation of female researchers in physical activity publications from 1950 to 2019. The frequency of female researchers was analyzed and classified by first and last authors and the overall percentage of female authors by region and country. Results: The proportion of female first authors increased from <10% in the 50s and 80s to 55% in the last decade. On the other hand, the proportion of last authors increased from 8.7% to 41.1% in the same period. Most publications with female researchers were from the United States, Canada, Australia, Brazil, the Netherlands, Spain, England, Germany, Sweden, and China. Nine of these countries had over 50% of the articles published by female first authors. However, in all 10 countries, <50% of the articles were published by female last authors. Conclusions: The proportion of female researchers increased over time. However, regional differences exist and should be addressed in gender equity policies. There is a gap in the participation of female researchers as last authors. By actively addressing the gender gap in research, the global society can harness the full potential of all talented individuals, regardless of gender, leading to more inclusive and impactful scientific advancements.

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Preliminary Program Evaluation of Pocket PE 3–5™, A User-Friendly Digital Application for Teacher Skills Training and Physical Education Activities for Third- to Fifth-Grade Elementary Students

Jeanette Ricci, Deborah Johnson-Shelton, and Erika Westling

Background: In the United States, many classroom teachers also teach physical education (PE). However, there is a dearth of evidence- and standard-based PE programs designed to support classroom teachers to deliver PE effectively in schools. Methods: The purpose of this study was to establish proof-of-concept for the Pocket PE 3–5 digital app in school settings with 10 third- to fifth-grade classroom teachers. We assessed fidelity of program implementation, measured via observations of PE quality. Students used wrist-worn heart rate monitors during Pocket PE 3–5 lessons to measure time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity. Program feasibility was primarily assessed through teacher-reported surveys of usability, satisfaction, and acceptability and exit interviews. Results: Mean PE observation scores were 18.6 (SD = 1.5) on a scale of 5 to 20. On average, students spent 56.7% (SD = 13.1%) of class time engaging in moderate to vigorous physical activity. Mean survey scores, reported on a 5-point scale, were 4.5 (SD = 0.6) for acceptability, 4.8 (SD = 0.4) for usability, and 4.7 (SD = 0.7) for satisfaction. Teachers liked how easy the app was to use but mentioned some technological challenges. Conclusions: This program evaluation study established the proof-of-concept for the Pocket PE 3–5 elementary school PE program.