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Carlos Alix-Fages, Henar González-Cano, Eneko Baz-Valle, and Carlos Balsalobre-Fernández

This study aimed to explore the effects of mental fatigue (MF) induced by an incongruent Stroop task (ST) and by using social media (SM) compared to watching a documentary (control) on dynamic resistance training. Twenty-one resistance-trained males attended three identical experimental sessions with the only difference of the randomized cognitive task (ST, SM, or control). Each session consisted of (a) baseline MF and motivation visual analogue scale responses, (b) cognitive task, (c) postvisual analogue scale responses, (d) warm-up, and (e) resistance training based on three sets of bench press at 65% of one-repetition maximum till concentric failure. Number of repetitions, ratings of perceived exertion, mean velocity of repetitions, and three repetitions in reserve estimated by subjects were recorded for each set. Both ST (p < .001) and SM (p = .010) effectively induced MF, but only ST impaired the number of repetitions performed in Set 2 (p = .036) and generated higher-than-normal levels of ratings of perceived exertion even reaching significant differences compared to SM in Set 1 (p = .005). However, SM also affected neuromuscular performance by impairing movement velocity in Set 1 (p = .003). The ability of estimating three repetitions in reserve or motivation was not affected by any condition (p range = .362–.979). MF induced by ST impaired the number of repetitions performed, what seems to be mediated by higher-than-normal levels of ratings of perceived exertion. Besides, SM also impaired the ability to apply force against 65% of one-repetition maximum measured by movement velocity.

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Carlos Alix-Fages, Eneko Baz-Valle, Henar González-Cano, Pablo Jiménez-Martínez, and Carlos Balsalobre-Fernández

The aim of this study was to explore the effects of mental fatigue from smartphone use and Stroop task on bench press force–velocity (F-V) profile, one-repetition maximum (1RM), and countermovement jump (CMJ) performance. Twenty-five trained subjects (age = 25.8 ± 5.7 years) completed three sessions separated by 1 week following a randomized double-blinded crossover design. Each session consisted of F-V relationship, 1RM, and CMJ measurements after performing 30 min of control, social media, or Stroop task. Perceived mental fatigue and motivation were recorded. Mental fatigue, motivation, CMJ height, bench press 1RM, and F-V profile variables (maximal force, maximal velocity, and maximal power) were compared between interventions. Significant differences were found for mental fatigue between interventions (p ≤ .001). Both ST (p ≤ .001) and SM (p = .007) induced higher mental fatigue than control. However, no significant differences between interventions were observed for any other variable (p = .056–.723). The magnitude of the differences between interventions ranged from negligible to small (effect sizes ≤ 0.24). These results suggest that although both ST and SM were effective to induce mental fatigue, neither ST nor SM affected CMJ performance, bench press 1RM, or any variable of the F-V profile compared with the control task.

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Xiaoyue Hu, Ziwei Zeng, Meihua Tang, and Lin Wang

Background: Plantar sensation and ankle proprioception occur in a stage-like variance across the life span. However, changes in adolescents, young adults, middle-aged adults, and older adults remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences of plantar sensation and ankle proprioception in adolescents to older adults. Methods: A total of 212 participants were recruited in the study and were divided into four groups, including adolescents (n = 46), young adults (n = 55), middle-aged adults (n = 47), and older adults (n = 54). Plantar tactile sensitivity/tactile acuity/vibration threshold and ankle movement threshold/joint position sense/force sense were assessed in all groups. The Kruskal–Wallis H test was used to analyze the differences in Semmes–Weinstein monofilaments between different age groups in different plantar positions. One-way analysis of variance was used to determine differences in foot vibration threshold, two-point discrimination, and ankle proprioception between different age groups. Results: Significant differences were found in the Semmes–Weinstein monofilament test (p < .001), the two-point discrimination test (p < .05), and the vibration threshold test (p < .05) in the six tested plantar positions among adolescents, young adults, middle-aged adults, and older adults. For ankle proprioception, significant differences were found in movement thresholds in ankle plantar flexion (p = .01), ankle dorsiflexion (p < .001), ankle inversion (p < .001), and ankle eversion (p < .001), as well as relative absolute errors in the ankle force senses of ankle plantar flexion (p = .02) and ankle dorsiflexion (p = .02) across the four age groups. Conclusion: Plantar sensation and ankle proprioception were sensitive in adolescents and young adults than in middle-aged adults and older adults.

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Flora Panteli, Apostolos Theodorou, and Athanasia Smirniotou

The study assessed the manifestation of a regulated locomotion pattern while clearing the first two hurdles during running. In addition, the effect of a hurdles’ learning design, using specific activities and manipulated task constraints, on regulation strategies and kinematic reorganization was examined. Pre- and posttests were conducted. Twenty-four young athletes were randomly assigned into an experimental and a control group, and performed 18 training sessions, consisting of a hurdle-based intervention for experimental participants and a more generalized athletics training for control participants. Different footfall variability curves were recorded, suggesting that young athletes regulated locomotion pattern to clear the hurdles according to their needs. Task-specific training contributed to lower values of variability for the entire approach run and to functional movement reorganization, affording learners to take-off further from the hurdle with a higher horizontal velocity, leading to a more flat hurdle clearance stride and to a significant hurdle running performance improvement.

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Michael J. Hiley and Maurice R. Yeadon

The upstart is commonly used on bars in artistic gymnastics following a release and regrasp skill, where the gymnast will perform a flighted element before catching the bar. The variability of the flighted element leads to varying initial conditions prior to the upstart. The aim of the study was to understand how technique can be manipulated in order to ensure success at the task despite this variability. More specifically, the study aimed to quantify the ranges of initial angular velocity a gymnast could cope with in an upstart using (a) a fixed timing technique, (b) with one additional parameter to modify timings as a function of initial angular velocity, and (c) a further additional parameter to extend the range. Relationships were established, using computer simulation modeling, between the movement pattern parameters, which defined the technique, and the initial angular velocity of the upstart. A two-parameter relationship outperformed both the one-parameter relationship and the fixed timing solution in terms of the range of initial angular velocities the model could cope with. One of the two parameters governed the time by which the initiation of the shoulder extension should be reduced as a function of increased initial angular velocity, and the other parameter performed the same function for the remaining timing parameters at the hip and shoulder. The present study suggests that gymnasts, and, therefore, humans, may be able to modify movement patterns to cope with uncertain initial conditions using a relatively small number of parameters.

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Melissa A. Fothergill, Danna Baik, Hannah M. Slater, and Pamela L. Graham

This study provides insight into an inclusive program between Special Olympics (SO) and academy football (soccer) players in the United Kingdom from the perspectives of players and facilitators. Qualitative focus groups were conducted across 30 participants (six facilitators, 14 Premier League academy players, and 10 SO players). Focus groups compared stakeholders’ experiences of participating in a season-long inclusive football program. Three overarching higher order themes were generated, which highlighted positive outcomes from taking part. SO players provided endorsement for developing friendships and improving football skills, whereas academy players cited the positive impact that SO players had on their mood and motivation. Facilitators reflected on positive player outcomes and subsequent accomplishments. Overall, the findings indicated that this shared experience had psychosocial and football-specific benefits for everyone who participated. Facilitators indicated that these benefits could transition into everyday life but noted that there needs to be further considerations for future programs.

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Rebecca Bassett-Gunter, Jennifer Tomasone, Amy Latimer-Cheung, Kelly Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Katerina Disimino, Victoria Larocca, Lauren Tristani, Kathleen Martin Ginis, Jennifer Leo, Leigh Vanderloo, Dave Sora, and Archie Allison

Parents of children and youth with disabilities (CYD) have expressed unique physical activity (PA) information needs. Community-based organizations (CBOs) require assistance to meet these needs. Guided by the Appraisal of Guidelines, Research and Evaluation II, this project established evidence-informed recommendations for developing PA information targeting families of CYD. This process involved a systematic scoping review to inform draft recommendations (k = 23), which were revised via a consensus meeting with researchers, knowledge users from CBOs, and families of CYD. Broader consultation with CBO knowledge users informed the final recommendations (k = 5) that fit within the following categories: (a) language and definitions, (b) program information, (c) benefits of PA, (d) barriers to PA, and (e) PA ideas and self-regulation tools. CBOs are encouraged to consider these recommendations when developing PA information for families of CYD. Future research will focus on the development of knowledge products to disseminate the recommendations to CBOs and support implementation.