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Muscle Mass and Strength Gains Following Resistance Exercise Training in Older Adults 65–75 Years and Older Adults Above 85 Years

Gabriel Nasri Marzuca-Nassr, Andrea Alegría-Molina, Yuri SanMartín-Calísto, Macarena Artigas-Arias, Nolberto Huard, Jorge Sapunar, Luis A. Salazar, Lex B. Verdijk, and Luc J.C. van Loon

Resistance exercise training (RET) can be applied effectively to increase muscle mass and function in older adults (65–75 years). However, it has been speculated that older adults above 85 years are less responsive to the benefits of RET. This study compares the impact of RET on muscle mass and function in healthy older adults 65–75 years versus older adults above 85 years. We subjected 17 healthy older adults 65–75 years (OLDER 65–75, n = 13/4 [female/male]; 68 ± 2 years; 26.9 ± 2.3 kg/m2) and 12 healthy older adults above 85 years (OLDER 85+, n = 7/5 [female/male]; 87 ± 3 years; 26.0 ± 3.6 kg/m2) to 12 weeks of whole-body RET (three times per week). Prior to, and after 6 and 12 weeks of training, quadriceps and lumbar spine vertebra 3 muscle cross-sectional area (computed tomography scan), whole-body lean mass (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan), strength (one-repetition maximum test), and physical performance (timed up and go and short physical performance battery) were assessed. Twelve weeks of RET resulted in a 10% ± 4% and 11% ± 5% increase in quadriceps cross-sectional area (from 46.5 ± 10.7 to 51.1 ± 12.1 cm2, and from 38.9 ± 6.1 to 43.1 ± 8.0 cm2, respectively; p < .001; η2 = .67); a 2% ± 3% and 2% ± 3% increase in whole-body lean mass (p = .001; η2 = .22); and a 38% ± 20% and 46% ± 14% increase in one-repetition maximum leg extension strength (p < .001; η2 = .77) in the OLDER 65–75 and OLDER 85+ groups, respectively. No differences in the responses to RET were observed between groups (Time × Group, all p > .60; all η2 ≤ .012). Physical performance on the short physical performance battery and timed up and go improved (both p < .01; η2 ≥ .22), with no differences between groups (Time × Group, p > .015; η2 ≤ .07). Prolonged RET increases muscle mass, strength, and physical performance in the aging population, with no differences between 65–75 years and 85+ years older adults.

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Assessment of Osteogenic Exercise Efficacy via Bone Turnover Markers in Premenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Horacio Sanchez-Trigo, Wolfgang Kemmler, Gustavo Duque, and Borja Sañudo

Assessing bone’s response to physical activity interventions is challenging. This randomized controlled trial investigates if changes in bone turnover markers can offer an early evaluation of a physical activity intervention’s effectiveness in improving bone mineral density (BMD) in premenopausal women. Participants in the intervention group (n = 27, with 24 completing the trial) were instructed to walk at least 10,000 steps every day on a brisk walk and to execute 60 jumps daily, each surpassing 4g of acceleration, using an accelerometer-based wearable device. Meanwhile, the control group (n = 26, with 18 completing the trial) continued with their usual lifestyle. Bone turnover markers, comprising of C-terminal telopeptide of Type I collagen, procollagen Type 1 N-terminal propeptide, and total osteocalcin (carboxylated and undercarboxylated) were measured at baseline and midway through the intervention (3 months). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans of the hip and lumbar spine were conducted at baseline and the end of the intervention (6 months) to estimate BMD. Analysis of covariance exhibited significant differences between groups in procollagen Type 1 N-terminal propeptide (−6.74 μg/L, p = .023) and C-terminal telopeptide of Type I collagen (−83 ng/L, p = .043) after 3 months, and in femoral neck BMD (+0.024 g/cm2, p = .016), total hip BMD (+0.036 g/cm2, p = .004), and lumbar spine BMD (+0.026 g/cm2, p = .020) after 6 months. A significant correlation (r = −.73; p < .001) was detected between reductions in C-terminal telopeptide of Type I collagen and increases in femoral neck BMD. In conclusion, this intervention improved BMD in premenopausal women, with bone turnover markers potentially useful for early intervention assessment, though further research is needed.

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The Effect of Exercise Intensity on Carbohydrate Sparing Postexercise: Implications for Postexercise Hypoglycemia

Raymond J. Davey, Mohamad H. Jaafar, Luis D. Ferreira, and Paul A. Fournier

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of exercise intensity on the proportion and rate of carbohydrate oxidation and glucoregulatory hormone responses during recovery from exercise. Six physically active participants completed 1 hr of low-intensity (LI; 50% lactate threshold) or moderate-intensity (MI; 100% lactate threshold) exercise on separate days following a randomized counterbalanced design. During exercise and for 6 hr of recovery, samples of expired air were collected to determine oxygen consumption, respiratory exchange ratio, energy expenditure, and substrate oxidation rates. Blood samples were also collected to measure glucoregulatory hormones (catecholamines, GH) and metabolites (glucose, free fatty acids, lactate, pH, and bicarbonate). During exercise, respiratory exchange ratio, energy expenditure, and the proportion and rate of carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation were higher during MI compared with LI. However, during recovery from MI, respiratory exchange ratio and the proportion and rate of CHO oxidation were lower than preexercise levels and corresponding LI. During exercise and early recovery, catecholamines and growth hormone were higher in MI than LI, and there was a trend for higher levels of free fatty acids in the early recovery from MI compared with LI. In summary, CHO oxidation during exercise increases with exercise intensity but there is a preference for CHO sparing (and fat oxidation) during recovery from MI exercise compared with LI exercise. This exercise intensity-dependent shift in substrate oxidation during recovery is explained, in part, by the pattern of change of key glucoregulatory hormones including catecholamines and growth hormone and plasma fatty acid concentrations.

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Erratum. Effect of Moderate Versus Vigorous Exercise Intensity on Body Composition in Young Untrained Adults: The Activating Brown Adipose Tissue Through Exercise (ACTIBATE) Randomized Controlled Trial

International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism

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Effects of Ketone Monoester and Bicarbonate Co-Ingestion on Cycling Performance in WorldTour Cyclists

Domingo Jesús Ramos-Campo, Francisco Javier López-Román, Silvia Pérez-Piñero, Raquel Ortolano, María Salud Abellán-Ruiz, Enrique Molina Pérez de los Cobos, Antonio Jesús Luque-Rubia, Dag Van Elslande, and Vicente Ávila-Gandía

The present randomized study investigated the effect of acute supplementation of 800 mg/kg of ketone monoester ingestion (KE) or placebo (PL) and 210 mg/kg of NaHCO3 co-ingestion on cycling performance of WorldTour cyclists during a road cycling stage simulation. Twenty-eight cyclists participated in the study (27.46 ± 4.32 years; 1.80 ± 0.06 m; 69.74 ± 6.36 kg). Performance, physiological, biochemical, and metabolism outcomes, gut discomfort, and effort perceived were assessed during a road cycling simulation composed of an 8-min time-trial (TT) performance + 30-s TT + 4.5 hr of outdoor cycling + a second 8-min TT + a second 30-s TT. Greater absolute and relative mean power during the first 8-min TT (F = 5.067, p = .033, η p 2 = .163 , F = 5.339, p = .029, η p 2 = .170 , respectively) was observed after KE than after PL (KE: 389 ± 34, PL: 378 ± 44 W, p = .002, d = 0.294 and KE: 5.60 ± 0.42, PL: 5.41 ± 0.44 W/kg, p = .001, d = 0.442). Additionally, greater concentration of β-hydroxybutyrate blood concentration (F = 42.195, p < .001, η p 2 = .619 ) was observed after KE than after PL during the first steps of the stage (e.g., after warm-up KE: 1.223 ± 0.642, PL: 0.044 ± 0.058 mM, p < .001, d = 2.589), although the concentrations returned to near baseline after 4.5 hr of outdoor cycling. Moreover, higher values of anion gap were observed (F = 2.333, p = .026, η p 2 = .080 ) after KE than after PL ingestion, after the warm-up and after the first 8-min and 30-s TT. Additionally, lower concentrations of HCO 3 were reported in the KE condition after warm-up and after the first 8-min and 30-s TT. During the initial phase of the stage simulation, acute supplementation with KE + NaHCO3 co-ingestion enhanced 8-min TT cycling performance (3.1%) in WorldTour cyclists with a concomitant hyperketonaemia.

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Effect of Moderate Versus Vigorous Exercise Intensity on Body Composition in Young Untrained Adults: The Activating Brown Adipose Tissue Through Exercise (ACTIBATE) Randomized Controlled Trial

Francisco J. Amaro-Gahete, María Ruiz-Ruiz, Amalia Cano-Nieto, Guillermo Sanchez-Delgado, Juan M.A. Alcantara, Francisco M. Acosta, Idoia Labayen, Francisco B. Ortega, and Jonatan R. Ruiz

The present study aimed to investigate the effect of a 24-week aerobic + resistance training programs at moderate versus vigorous intensity on body composition, and the persistence of the changes after a 10-month free-living period, in young untrained adults. This report is based on a secondary analysis from the activating brown adipose tissue through exercise (ACTIBATE) single-center unblinded randomized controlled trial. A total of 144 young adults (65.6% women) aged 18–25 years were randomly allocated to three different groups: (a) aerobic + resistance exercise training program based on the international physical activity recommendations at vigorous intensity (Ex-Vigorous group), (b) at moderate intensity (Ex-Moderate group), and (c) control group (no exercise). Body composition outcomes were determined by a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanner. Both Ex-Vigorous and Ex-Moderate decreased body weight, fat mass, and visceral adipose tissue mass in a similar manner (all p < .04). After a 10-month free-living period, these parameters returned to baseline levels in both exercise groups (all ps < .03). No differences between the exercise groups and the control group were noted in lean mass changes (all ps > .1). A 24-week aerobic + resistance training intervention based on the international physical activity recommendations was enough to improve body weight, fat mass, and visceral adipose tissue mass in untrained young adults, independently of the exercise intensity (moderate vs. vigorous).

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Significant Changes in Resting Metabolic Rate Over a Competitive Match Week Are Accompanied by an Absence of Nutritional Periodization in Male Professional Soccer Players

Jennie L. Carter, David J. Lee, Craig G. Perrin, Mayur K. Ranchordas, and Matthew Cole

Resting metabolic rate (RMR) is an important component of total daily energy expenditure; however, it is currently not understood how it varies across a typical competitive match week in professional soccer players. For the first time, we aimed to assess RMR throughout an in-season competitive week in professional soccer players. Additionally, we aimed to assess energy and carbohydrate intake across the same week. Twenty-four professional soccer players from an English Premier League club (age: 18 ± 1.6 years) completed the study. RMR was assessed each morning of a typical competitive match week (match day [MD] −3, −2, −1, +1, +2, and + 3), and dietary intake (including MD) was assessed daily via the remote food photography method and 24-hr recall. Daily training load was quantified using Global Positioning System, daily muscle soreness ratings were recorded, and body composition was assessed via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. There was a significant (p = .0004) increase in mean RMR of ∼261 kcal/day on MD + 1, compared with MD − 1. Additionally, volume of oxygen consumed significantly increased at MD + 1 (p = .0002) versus MD − 1. There were no significant differences in daily energy or carbohydrate intake across the competitive week (p > .05), with inadequate carbohydrate intakes on MD − 1 (∼3.9 g/kg body mass), MD (∼4.2 g/kg body mass), and MD + 1 (∼3.6 g/kg body mass) in relation to current recommendations. We report, for the first time, that RMR is significantly increased following a competitive match in professional soccer players. In addition, we confirm previous findings to reinforce that players exhibit inadequate nutrition periodization practices, which may impair physical performance and recovery.

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Total Energy Expenditure and Nutritional Intake in Continuous Multiday Ultramarathon Events

Andrew W. Best, Amanda McGrosky, Zane Swanson, Rebecca Rimbach, Katie McConaughy, Joe McConaughy, Cara Ocobock, and Herman Pontzer

Continuous multiday ultramarathon competitions are increasingly popular and impose extreme energetic and nutritional demands on competitors. However, few data have been published on energy expenditure during these events. Here, we report doubly labeled water-derived measures of total energy expenditure (in kilocalories per day) and estimated physical activity level (PAL: total energy expenditure/basal metabolic rate) collected from five elite and subelite finishers (four males and one female, age 34.6 ± 4.9 years)—and nutritional intake data from the winner—of the Cocodona 250, a ∼402-km race in Arizona, and from a fastest-known-time record (one male, age 30 years) on the ∼1,315-km Arizona Trail. PAL during these events exceeded four times basal metabolic rate (Cocodona range: 4.34–6.94; Arizona Trail: 5.63). Combining the results with other doubly labeled water-derived total energy expenditure data from ultraendurance events show a strong inverse relationship between event duration and PAL (r 2 = .68, p < .0001). Cocodona race duration was inversely, though not significantly, associated with PAL (r 2 = .70, p = .08). Water turnover varied widely between athletes and was not explained by PAL or body mass. The Cocodona race winner met ∼53% of energy demand via dietary intake, 85.6% of which was carbohydrate, while ∼47% of energy demand was met via catabolism of body energy stores. Together, these results illustrate the energetic deficits incurred during competitive continuous multiday ultramarathon efforts and implicate macronutrient absorption and/or storage as key factors in ultramarathon performance.

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Volume 33 (2023): Issue 5 (Sep 2023)

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The Effects of an Acute Dose of New Zealand Blackcurrant Extract on 5-km Running Performance

Samantha L. Moss, Edward Brindley, Kevin Enright, Jamie Highton, and Richard Bott

This study investigated the effects of an acute dose (900 mg) of New Zealand Blackcurrant (NZBC) extract on 5-km running performance, alongside associated physiological and metabolic responses. Sixteen trained male runners (age 26 ± 5 years, stature 173.4 ± 7.3 cm, body mass 73.7 ± 6.9 kg, maximal oxygen consumption [ V ˙ O 2 max ] 55.4 ± 6.1 ml·kg−1·min−1) ingested either capsules containing NZBC extract (3 × 300 mg CurraNZ, 315 mg anthocyanins) or a matched placebo (3 × 300 mg gluten-free flour) 2 hr before exercise in a double-blind, randomized, crossover design. Performance time, physiological, and metabolic responses were assessed in a 5-km time trial, preceded by 10-min exercise at the lactate threshold on a treadmill. NZBC extract did not alter the physiological or metabolic responses to exercise at the lactate threshold (oxygen uptake, respiratory exchange ratio, minute ventilation, carbohydrate oxidation, fat oxidation, heart rate, blood lactate, or rating of perceived exertion, p > .05). The 5-km time trial was completed in a faster time in the NZBC extract condition compared with placebo (NZBC: 1,308.96 ± 122.36 s, placebo: 1,346.33 ± 124.44, p = .001, d = −0.23, confidence interval range = [−0.46, 0.00 s]). No differences in physiological or metabolic responses were apparent between conditions for the 5-km time trial (p > .05). Ingesting 900 mg of NZBC extract as an acute dose improves performance in trained male runners without altering physiological or metabolic responses to exercise. Further research is needed to assess a wider range of possible mechanisms (e.g., cardiovascular function, metabolite profiles) to advance insight into improved performance following supplementation.