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Perceived Barriers to Physical Activity Among Youth Living in Rural and Urban Canadian Communities: A Nationally Representative Cross-Sectional Study

Taru Manyanga, Nicole White, Larine Sluggett, Annie Duchesne, David Anekwe, and Chelsea Pelletier

Background: We used nationally representative data to explore associations among location of residence (rural/urban) and perceived barriers to physical activity (PA) in Canadian youth. Methods: We analyzed the 2017 Canadian Community Health Survey, Barriers to Physical Activity Rapid Response data for 12- to 17-year-old youth. Nine items from the survey assessing perceived barriers to PA were combined into 3 barrier domains: resources, motivational, and socioenvironmental. The likelihood of reporting barriers to PA based on rural–urban location was examined using survey-weighted binary logistic regression following a model fitting approach. Sociodemographic factors were modeled as covariates and tested in interaction with location. For each barrier domain, we derived the best-fitting model with fewest terms. Results: There were no location-specific effects related to reporting any barrier or motivation-related PA barriers. We found a sex by location interaction predicting the likelihood of reporting resource-related barriers. Rural boys were less likely to report resource-related barriers compared with urban boys (odds ratio [OR] = 0.42 [0.20, 0.88]). Rural girls were more likely to report resource-related barriers compared with boys (OR = 3.72 [1.66, 8.30]). Regarding socioenvironmental barriers, we observed a significant body mass index by location interaction demonstrating that rural youth with body mass index outside the “normal range” showed a higher likelihood of reporting socioenvironmental barriers compared with urban youth (OR = 2.38 [1.32, 4.30]). For urban youth, body mass index was unrelated to reporting socioenvironmental barriers (OR = 1.07 [0.67, 1.71]). Conclusion: PA barriers are not universal among Canadian youth. Our analyses highlight the importance of testing interactions in similar studies as well as considering key sociodemographic characteristics when designing interventions.

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Gender Differences in Physical Activity and Health-Related Authorships Between 1950 and 2019

Eduardo Ribes Kohn, Pedro Curi Hallal, Gloria Isabel Niño-Cruz, Julia Almentero, Diana Pinzón, Maristela Böhlke, Katja Siefken, Michael Pratt, and Andrea Ramirez-Varela

Background: The objective of this study was to investigate gender differences in authorship in physical activity and health research. Methods: A bibliometric study including 23,399 articles from 105 countries was conducted to estimate the participation of female researchers in physical activity publications from 1950 to 2019. The frequency of female researchers was analyzed and classified by first and last authors and the overall percentage of female authors by region and country. Results: The proportion of female first authors increased from <10% in the 50s and 80s to 55% in the last decade. On the other hand, the proportion of last authors increased from 8.7% to 41.1% in the same period. Most publications with female researchers were from the United States, Canada, Australia, Brazil, the Netherlands, Spain, England, Germany, Sweden, and China. Nine of these countries had over 50% of the articles published by female first authors. However, in all 10 countries, <50% of the articles were published by female last authors. Conclusions: The proportion of female researchers increased over time. However, regional differences exist and should be addressed in gender equity policies. There is a gap in the participation of female researchers as last authors. By actively addressing the gender gap in research, the global society can harness the full potential of all talented individuals, regardless of gender, leading to more inclusive and impactful scientific advancements.

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Preliminary Program Evaluation of Pocket PE 3–5™, A User-Friendly Digital Application for Teacher Skills Training and Physical Education Activities for Third- to Fifth-Grade Elementary Students

Jeanette Ricci, Deborah Johnson-Shelton, and Erika Westling

Background: In the United States, many classroom teachers also teach physical education (PE). However, there is a dearth of evidence- and standard-based PE programs designed to support classroom teachers to deliver PE effectively in schools. Methods: The purpose of this study was to establish proof-of-concept for the Pocket PE 3–5 digital app in school settings with 10 third- to fifth-grade classroom teachers. We assessed fidelity of program implementation, measured via observations of PE quality. Students used wrist-worn heart rate monitors during Pocket PE 3–5 lessons to measure time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity. Program feasibility was primarily assessed through teacher-reported surveys of usability, satisfaction, and acceptability and exit interviews. Results: Mean PE observation scores were 18.6 (SD = 1.5) on a scale of 5 to 20. On average, students spent 56.7% (SD = 13.1%) of class time engaging in moderate to vigorous physical activity. Mean survey scores, reported on a 5-point scale, were 4.5 (SD = 0.6) for acceptability, 4.8 (SD = 0.4) for usability, and 4.7 (SD = 0.7) for satisfaction. Teachers liked how easy the app was to use but mentioned some technological challenges. Conclusions: This program evaluation study established the proof-of-concept for the Pocket PE 3–5 elementary school PE program.

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Volume 21 (2024): Issue 4 (Apr 2024)

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Parenting Practices Are Associated With Out-of-School Physical Activity in US Adolescents in 2014

Farhan Hiya, Jean-Paul M. Lamour, Anwar A. Khan, Robert Wood, Pura E. Rodriguez de la Vega, Grettel Castro, Juan G. Ruiz, and Noel C. Barengo

Introduction: Lack of physical activity (PA) is associated with obesity, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Parenting practices influence PA in young children. However, there is little evidence available for adolescents. We examined whether parenting practices were associated with out-of-school PA (OSPA) in US adolescents. Methods: This cross-sectional 2019 study analyzed data from the 2014 FLASHE study, a web-based, quota-sampled survey of parent–adolescent dyads. Inclusion required survey completion and parents to live with their teen (ages 12–17 y old). Physically limited adolescents were excluded. Dyads were stratified by teen age. Exposures included parental modeling, monitoring, facilitation, restriction, guided choice, and pressure. The outcomes of interest were OSPA Youth Activity Profile scores. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using adjusted logistic regressions. Results: A total of 1109 dyads were included. Guided choice increased odds of OSPA for 15- to 17-year-olds (OR = 2.12; 95% CI, 1.17–3.84). Facilitation increased odds of OSPA for 12- to 14-year-olds (OR = 2.21; 95% CI, 1.13–4.33). Monitoring decreased odds of OSPA for 15- to 17-year-olds (OR = 0.34; 95% CI, 0.20–0.57) and 12- to 14-year-olds (OR = 0.45; 95% CI, 0.27–0.74). Friend support increased odds of OSPA in 15- to 17-year-olds (OR = 4.03; 95% CI, 2.29–7.08) and 12- to 14-year-olds (OR = 3.05; 95% CI 1.69–5.51). Conclusion: Future interventions should prioritize (1) shared decision making for older teens, (2) access to PA opportunities for younger adolescents, and (3) promoting peer PA and friend support for everyone.

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What Effect Do Goal Setting Interventions Have on Physical Activity and Psychological Outcomes in Insufficiently Active Adults? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Katie R. Garstang, Patricia C. Jackman, Laura C. Healy, Simon B. Cooper, and Daniele Magistro

Background: Goal setting is commonly used for promoting physical activity (PA) among insufficiently active individuals. Previous reviews have analyzed the effects of goal setting on PA, but the purpose of this systematic review was to examine the concurrent effects of goal setting on PA and psychological outcomes in insufficiently active individuals to support interventions aiming to produce sustained PA behavior change. Methods: In this review (PROSPERO: CRD42021243970), we identified 13 studies with 1208 insufficiently active adults that reported the effects of goal-setting interventions (range 3–24 wk) on both PA and psychological outcomes (eg, self-efficacy, motivation, and affect). We used meta-analysis and narrative synthesis to analyze these effects. Results: All goals used in the included studies were specific goals. Setting specific goals had a large, positive effect on PA (g [standard mean difference] = 1.11 [P < .001]; 95% confidence interval, 0.74–1.47), but only a small, positive effect on the combined psychological outcomes (g [standard mean difference] = 0.25 [P < .001]; 95% CI, 0.10–0.40). Moderator analyses revealed that interventions that did not reward participants had a significantly greater effect on PA than interventions that did provide rewards (g = 1.30 vs 0.60, respectively, P ≤ .003). No other significant moderators were found. Conclusion: Our review offers initial insight into the long-term effects of specific goals on PA and psychological outcomes in insufficiently active adults. Further research that examines the PA and psychological effects of goal-setting interventions and investigates a wider range of goal types could develop a stronger evidence base to inform intervention for insufficiently active individuals.

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Effects of a 10-Week Integrated Curriculum Intervention on Physical Activity, Resting Blood Pressure, Motor Skills, and Well-Being in 6- to 7-Year-Olds

Michael J. Duncan, Katie Fitton Davies, Nduka Okwose, Amy E. Harwood, and Djordje G. Jakovljevic

Background: Integrated curriculum interventions have been suggested as an effective means to increase physical activity (PA) and health. The feasibility of such approaches in children living in deprivation is unknown. This study sought to pilot an integrated curriculum pedometer intervention in children living in deprivation on school-based PA, body fatness, resting blood pressure, motor skills, and well-being. Methods: Using a pilot cluster randomized intervention design, children (6–7 y old, n = 64) from 2 schools in central England undertook: (1) 10-week integrated curriculum intervention or (2) control (regular school-based activity). School-based PA, body fatness, resting blood pressure, motor skills, and well-being were assessed preintervention and postintervention. Results: For the intervention group, PA was higher on school days when children had physical education lessons or there were physically active integrated curriculum activities. Body fatness significantly decreased, and well-being and perceived physical competence increased, pre–post for the intervention group compared with the control group. Accelerometer-derived PA, motor skills, and resting blood pressure were not significantly different pre–post for intervention or control groups. Conclusions: A 10-week integrated curriculum PA intervention is feasible to conduct and can positively impact aspects of health in 6- to 7-year-old children in England.

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Green Exercise as an Opportunity to Promote Equity in Physical Activity Engagement Across Diverse Populations

Iris Lesser, Cynthia Thomson, and Melissa Lem

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Proportion and Correlates of Children in the US-Affiliated Pacific Region Meeting Sleep, Screen Time, and Physical Activity Guidelines

Sarah T. Ryan, Anthony D. Okely, Kar Hau Chong, Rebecca M. Stanley, Melanie Randle, Gade Waqa, Ashley B. Yamanaka, Rachael Leon Guerrero, Patricia Coleman, Leslie Shallcross, Lynne R. Wilkens, Jonathan L. Deenik, and Rachel Novotny

Introduction: Limited data on 24-hour movement behaviors of children aged 5–8 years exist globally. We describe the prevalence and sociodemographic associations of meeting physical activity (PA), sedentary recreational screen time (ST), and sleep guidelines among children from 11 jurisdictions in the US-Affiliated Pacific region. Methods: Cross-sectional representative data from 1192 children aged 5–8 years living in the US-Affiliated Pacific region were drawn from the baseline 2012–2014 Children’s Healthy Living Program. Sleep and moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA were calculated from accelerometry. ST and sociodemographic data were collected from caregiver surveys. The percentage of children meeting the Asia-Pacific 24-hour movement guidelines for PA (≥60 min/d of moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA), sleep (≥9 and ≤ 11 h/d) and ST (≤2 h/d) were calculated. Generalized linear mixed models were used to examine associations with adiposity and sociodemographic variables. Results: Twenty-seven percent (95% confidence interval, 24.6–30.0) of children met integrated guidelines; 98% (96.2–98.0) met PA, 78% (75.4–80.0) met sleep, and 35% (32.6–38.0) met ST guidelines. Females (adjusted odds ratio = 1.40 [95% confidence interval, 1.03–1.91]) and those living in lower-middle-income jurisdictions (2.29 [1.49–3.54]) were more likely to meet ST guidelines. Overweight children (0.62 [0.40–0.96]), those aged 8 years (0.39 [0.22–0.69]), and children with caregivers of an education level of high school or beyond (0.44 [0.29–0.68]) were less likely to achieve ST guidelines. Children from midrange annual household incomes were less likely to meet combined guidelines (0.60 [0.39–0.92]). Conclusions: Three-quarters of children are not meeting integrated Asia-Pacific 24-hour movement guidelines. Future strategies for reducing ST and increasing integrated guidelines compliance are needed.

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Where Are Czech Adolescents Active? The Patterns of Movement and Transport Behavior in Different Active Living Domains

Michal Vorlíček, Tom Stewart, Jan Dygrýn, Lukáš Rubín, Josef Mitáš, Jaroslav Burian, Scott Duncan, Jasper Schipperijn, and Michael Pratt

To understand the environmental determinants of physical activity (PA), precise spatial localization is crucial. This cross-sectional study focuses on the spatiotemporal distribution of PA among Czech adolescents (n = 171) using Global Positioning System loggers and accelerometers. The results showed that adolescents spent most of their time in sedentary behavior, with 57.2% and 58.5% of monitored time at home and school, respectively. The park and playground had the lowest proportion of sedentary behavior but also the lowest amount of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA). However, when considering the time spent in each domain, the highest proportion of MVPA was seen in publicly accessible playgrounds (13.3% of the time). Chi-square analysis showed that the relative distribution of different PA intensities did not differ across spatial domains. Based on these results, the authors propose 2 key strategies for increasing MVPA in adolescents: Increase the time spent in activity-supportive environments, such as parks and playgrounds, and design techniques to increase MVPA at home and school settings.