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Effects of Physical Education on Preschool Children’s Physical Activity Levels and Motor, Cognitive, and Social Competences: A Systematic Review

Nagore Martinez-Merino and Markel Rico-González

The aim of this review was to systematically summarize the literature about physical education (PE) programs and their effects on preschool children’s physical activity levels and motor, cognitive, and social competences. A systematic search of relevant articles was carried out using four electronic databases up until February 16, 2022. The main findings were that the inclusion of PE in early childhood is a suitable alternative for improving development in three main areas. For motor competence, specific fundamental motor skill programs are a key opportunity to improve preschool children’s ability. Physical activity levels may be improved considering structured and regular PE programs (two to three classes per week). Regarding cognitive competence, PE classes are effective for improving creativity, attention, and mental abilities, and also, for reducing the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Finally, group-based activities are the most suitable alternative for boosting social competence in preschool children with or without motor disabilities. Improving these competences and physical activity levels in preschool is necessary for the children’s health and holistic development; the educators’ daily decisions have key importance.

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“Know Your Kids, Understand Yourself, and Find a Way”: One Elementary School Physical Education Teacher’s Efforts at Employing Character Education

Jamie Jacob Brunsdon

Background: Research concerning the philosophy of character education has been largely inadequate and anticlimactic. Purpose: Informed by a combination of emergent, novel, and nontraditional techniques, the purpose of this study is to describe one elementary school physical education teacher’s efforts at employing character education. Method: The participant was Paris, a White, abled-bodied female with 41 years’ experience. Utilizing an exploratory case study design, data were collected with eight interpretive techniques and analyzed using thematic methods. Findings: Paris employed a “content-based approach” to teaching character education and taught the moral content of human flourishing, virtue, and practical wisdom via jump rope, rock climbing, and parachute-based physical education content. Her character pedagogies of affect were explicit and implicit in nature and shaped around the skills themes, multiskill, and multiactivity pedagogical models. The factors influencing Paris’ efforts were identified. Conclusion: This study contributes to the affective literature from a theoretical, methodological, and practical perspective.

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Experiences, Attitudes, and Perceived Competence Regarding Sustainable Development Among Physical Education and Health Teachers in Sweden

Petter Wiklander, Andreas Fröberg, and Suzanne Lundvall

Purpose: Literature suggest that physical education and health (PEH) may contribute to the sustainable development (SD) agenda, yet little is known how PEH teachers relate SD to their teaching practices. This paper explores Swedish upper secondary PEH teachers’ experiences and perceived competence regarding teaching SD as part of PEH. Method: An online questionnaire was used to examine SD competence. Data from 702 PEH teachers were analyzed descriptively and inferentially. Results: PEH teachers perceive higher competence regarding the social dimension of SD compared to the economic and environmental dimensions. Female teachers and those with more than 15 years teaching experiences reported the highest perceived competence. Seventy percent of the respondents perceived that they lacked competence to teach SD. Discussion/Conclusion: PEH teachers struggle to relate SD to PEH practice and call for support to increase their competence in terms of how to conceptualize and transform SD into PEH teaching practice.

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Erratum. A Qualitative Examination of Online Practices During the COVID-19 Pandemic and Observational Preferences Within Physical Education

Journal of Teaching in Physical Education

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The Role of Cost in Predicting Learning Outcomes in Physical Education: An Expectancy–Value–Cost Model

Bo Shen, Benzheng Li, and Jin Bo

Purpose: While the expectancy–value theory recognizes the significance of cost as an essential component, it has garnered minimal attention in physical education. Utilizing two separate datasets, we explored the degree to which the inclusion of cost in an expectancy–value–cost model could augment its predictive capability. Method: Study 1 utilized a cross-sectional data set (N = 144) to investigate the predictive roles of expectancy belief, task value, and cost on behavioral and emotional engagement. Study 2 employed a longitudinal data set (N = 251) to assess how these variables influenced the hypothetical choice of attending physical education and cardiorespiratory fitness. Results: Cost played a significant role in explaining additional variance, surpassing what could be predicted through expectancy and value. Specifically, cost emerged as a crucial factor in predicting emotional engagement, hypothetical choice, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Conclusion: Incorporating cost as an independent construct can yield valuable supplementary insights into the determinants of students’ learning.

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“PE Is More Than Playing Kick Ball the Entire Hour”: Using Standards-Based Grading to Elevate Physical Education’s Status Among Preservice Physical Educators

Matt Townsley and Scott W.T. McNamara

Purpose: This study sought to examine how preservice physical educators conceptualize and intend to use standards-based grading (SBG) after receiving a 1-hr workshop on implementing SBG into a physical education (PE) setting. Method s: Using a qualitative descriptive approach, the researchers utilized class reflection assignments, a perceptions survey, and interviews with 10 undergraduate physical educators at a Midwestern university. Findings: The SBG workshop positively influenced participants’ views of the importance of PE, enhanced their attitudes toward organized and meaningful instructional planning, and shaped participants’ perceived norms and level of control when implementing SBG in their future classrooms. Discussion/Conclusion: SBG provides a means for preservice physical educators to validate their field and area of study and to visualize the interconnectedness of teaching, learning, and assessment within PE.

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Martial Arts and Combat Sports for Youth: A 10-Year Scoping Review

Alba Iara Cae Rodrigues, Risto Marttinen, and Dominique Banville

Martial arts and combat sports (MA&CS) are lifelong nontraditional activities seldom available for youth in school settings. Research has found that MA&CS can promote a variety of benefits to youth with novel experiences that promote nonviolent, psychological, affective, cognitive, and physical outcomes. Objective: The objective of this scoping review was to identify and categorize the peer-reviewed research with a pedagogical focus on MA&CS for youth across 10 years. Methods: The key terms used related to MA&CS and young people. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses for scoping review guidelines and included peer-reviewed empirical articles from six databases in English and Portuguese from 2013 to 2022. Results: The Results section was divided into a quantitative description of the literature analyzed and a discussion of the psychological, social, affective, physical, cognitive, and academic benefits of MA&CS interventions. Conclusion: MA&CS interventions can provide multiple benefits for youth in physical education and out-of-school settings.

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Learning to Integrate STEM Into Physical Education Through Asynchronous Professional Development Modules

Risto Marttinen, Dominique Banville, Nancy Holincheck, Vernise June Ferrer Lindsay, and Stephanie Stehle

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to understand nine physical education (PE) teachers’ experiences with an asynchronous professional development module focused on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) integration, and the barriers they perceived to integrating STEM into PE. Methods: Semistructured interviews, pre- and post open-ended questionnaires, and discussion board posts were analyzed through a collaborative coding process. Trustworthiness was increased by using a peer debriefer, multiple coders, negative case checks, and data triangulation. Results: Four themes describe the experiences of PE teachers learning to integrate STEM into PE: teacher’s knowledge about technology and STEM, barriers to PE teachers in integrating STEM, “We’re already integrating STEM,” and issues in professional development. Discussion/Conclusion: STEM integration is possible if PE teachers are provided time and opportunities to work with content experts to learn STEM concepts and have STEM be a by-product of PE lessons rather than the sole focus of the lesson.

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Portrait of the Assessment Practices of Physical Education Teachers in Quebec: Reporting and Grading

David Bezeau and Audrey-Anne De Guise

Purpose: To gain a better understanding of the assessment practices currently implemented by Quebec physical education teachers regarding reporting and grading. Method: Exploratory mixed-methods study using semistructured interviews (n = 13), interviews to the double (n = 12), and a questionnaire (n = 164) with elementary and high school physical education teachers. Results: Participants use different strategies to report student performance. When grading, their strategy is to combine a mathematical approach with their professional judgment. They often consider all the marks taken during a learning and assessment situation and not only those taken at the end of it. Discussion/Conclusions: The main finding of this study is that teachers’ reporting and grading practices are subjective. We discuss how our results show the subjectivity in teachers’ practices and possible explanations for it, and then conclude by trying to understand how to make assessment in physical education more objective.

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Teaching a Physical Activity to a Young Child With Autism Using the Three-Tier Video Modeling Model: A Pilot Study

Shu-Chen Wang and Hui-Ting Wang

The Three-Tier Video Modeling intervention model was derived from the theory of Response to Intervention. This pilot study aimed to demonstrate the application of the Three-Tier Video Modeling model with a top-down approach in teaching physical activity to a 4-year-old boy with autism spectrum disorder and his typically developing peers. The study utilized a single case-changing conditions design and measured children’s performance in the target physical activity. The results showed that the boy with autism spectrum disorder acquired the target skill and consequently generalized it to the natural environment, and all peers mastered the skill after intervention. Teachers and parents also reported a more inclusive learning environment. The potential implications of this novel approach were discussed.