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Robert Glenn Weaver, Rafael M. Tassitano, Maria Cecília M. Tenório, Keith Brazendale, and Michael W. Beets

Background: Evidence from a limited sample of countries indicates that time for physical education and recess during school have declined. Schools are called to provide children with 30 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). This systematic review and meta-analysis estimated temporal trends in children’s school day MVPA. Methods: Three online databases were searched to identify studies with objectively measured MVPA, during school hours, in school aged children (5–18 y). Multilevel random-effects meta-analyses estimated MVPA by year, and meta-regression analyses estimated temporal trends in school day MVPA. Results: Studies (N = 65) providing 171 MVPA estimates, representing 60,779 unique children, from 32 countries, and spanning 2003–2019 were identified. Most studies were conducted in North America (n = 33) or Europe (n = 21). School day MVPA ranged from 18.1 (95% confidence interval, 15.1–21.1) to 47.1 (95% confidence interval, 39.4–54.8) minutes per day in any given year. Meta-regression analyses indicated that MVPA declined from 2003 to 2010 (approximately 15 min decline), plateaued from 2010 to 2015 (approximately 1 min decrease), and increased from 2015 to 2019 (approximately 5 min increase). Conclusions: School day MVPA decreased from 2003 to 2010 and has recently begun to increase. However, the majority of the evidence is from North America and Europe with some evidence from Oceania and very little evidence from Asia to South America.

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Chiaki Yokota, Sachiko Ohta, and Yasuyuki Fujimoto

The aim was to identify the barriers to achieving premorbid physical activity in patients with home discharge after acute minor stroke or transient ischemic attack. Fifty-six patients (median age, 72 years) were analyzed. We assessed total physical activity in the premorbid condition and at 90 days after onset using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The patients were divided into two groups according to changes in total physical activity until 90 days after onset: decreased activity (n = 16) and nondecreased activity (n = 40) groups. Outcome measures were examined at discharge. The decreased activity group took significantly longer to perform the timed up and go test (median, 7.19 vs. 6.52 s) and contained more apathetic patients (44% vs. 15%). Apathy at discharge (relative risk 6.05, 95% confidence interval [1.33, 27.6]) was a significant determinant of decreased physical activity. Apathy is a barrier to the restoration of premorbid physical activity in stroke survivors.

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Shelby Carr, Amanda Burke, Angel Marie Chater, Neil Howlett, and Andy Jones

Background: Community-based physical activity programs typically evolve to respond to local conditions and feedback from stakeholders. Process evaluations are essential for capturing how programs are implemented, yet often fail to capture delivery evolution over time, meaning missed opportunities for capturing lessons learned. Methods: This research paper reports on a staged approach to a process evaluation undertaken within a community-based UK 12-month physical activity program that aimed to capture change and adaptation to program implementation. Twenty-five one-to-one interviews and 12 focus groups took place over the 3 years of program delivery. Participants included program participants, management, and service deliverers. Results: Program adaptations that were captured through the ongoing process evaluation included changes to the design of promotional material, program delivery content, ongoing training in behavior change, and the addition of regular participant community events. The authors address how these strands evolved over program delivery, and how the process evaluation was able to capture them. Conclusion: The pragmatic evaluation approach enabled changes in response to the local context, as well as improvements in the program to be captured in a timely manner, allowing the delivery to be responsive and the evaluation flexible.

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Megan J. Huisingh-Scheetz, Li Li, Kristen E. Wroblewski, L. Philip Schumm, Martha K. McClintock, and Jayant M. Pinto

Multisensory, physical, and cognitive dysfunction share age-related physiologic disturbances and may have common health effects. We determined whether the effect of multisensory impairment on physical activity (PA) is explained by physical (timed up and go) or cognitive (Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire) dysfunction. A National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project participant subset (n = 507) underwent objective sensory testing in 2005–2006 and wrist accelerometry in 2010–2011. We related multisensory impairment to PA using multivariate mixed-effects linear regression and compared the effect magnitude after adjusting for physical then cognitive dysfunction. Worse multisensory impairment predicted lower PA across three scales (Global Sensory Impairment: β = −0.04, 95% confidence interval [−0.07, −0.02]; Total Sensory Burden: β = −0.01, 95% confidence interval [−0.03, −0.003]; and Number of Impaired Senses: β = −0.02, 95% confidence interval [−0.04, −0.004]). Effects were similar after accounting for physical and cognitive dysfunction. Findings suggest that sensory, physical, and cognitive dysfunction have unique mechanisms underlying their PA effects.

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Marissa A. Kobayashi, Sara M. St. George, Rafael O. Leite, Blanca Noriega Esquives, Rachel Wetstone, Elizabeth R. Pulgaron, Guillermo Prado, and Sara J. Czaja

Physical inactivity is a major public health issue among older adults and children. This study presents preliminary results that will inform the development of a technology-based physical activity intervention for grandparents and grandchildren (ages 6–12 years old). The authors used an iterative user-centered design framework to gather quantitative data from grandparents (n = 35) and subsequently invited a subset of 12 of them to engage in qualitative interviews. Participants were 63.1 ± 9.8 years old, 80% female, 64% U.S.-born, 43% Hispanic, 66% single, and 40% <$15K income. The majority of grandparents reported mobile device proficiency, very close relationships with their grandchildren, and interest in participating in an intergenerational intervention. Four key themes related to family closeness, dynamics, routines, and technology informed intervention development. Next steps involved a pilot trial using Fitbits and a fully functioning technology-based prototype. Grandparents are uniquely positioned within their families to serve as agents of change in health-promoting interventions.

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Duane Knudson and Melissa Bopp

The COVID-19 pandemic shifted kinesiology courses into more hybrid and online delivery, creating new challenges and opportunities for evaluating learning and online testing. Research using the Biomechanics Concept Inventory indicates that both high-tech and low-tech active learning experiences implemented in hybrid and online formats in biomechanics courses improve student learning above levels for lecture alone. However, online pre- and posttesting using concept inventories or major exams are vulnerable to cheating. Experience and research on proctoring online testing indicate only partial success in detecting cheating absent substantial faculty commitment to investigate suspicious behavior. These difficulties with online testing provide an opportunity for kinesiology faculty to implement more authentic, holistic assessments that are less vulnerable to violations of academic integrity. The importance of well-designed, rigorous assessment methods that uphold academic integrity standards will continue to evolve as kinesiology departments expand online learning.

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Paul Carpenter, Karen Stylianides, Rebecca Weiler-Timmins, Andrea Randolph-Krisova, Kelly Sprinkle, and Rosa Angulo-Barrosso

The onset and spread of COVID-19 forced an accelerated shift to remote communication and online teaching, generating new challenges and opportunities for kinesiology. As a result of the pandemic situation, redefined collaborative models independently emerged among kinesiology departments in two systems, California State University and the Pennsylvania State University. These models built community; addressed geographic and size challenges associated with meeting in-person; empowered sharing of ideas, resources, best practices, and emotional support; and guided our campus communities to success. We suggest that these collaborative models can be used in the future as platforms to improve kinesiology student’s success by facilitating professional development, integration, sharing, problem solving, and social support.

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Laurie L. Schmidt, Shanthi Johnson, M. Rebecca Genoe, Bonnie Jeffery, and Jennifer Crawford

Social interaction and physical activity are critical components in supporting health among older adults, yet rates of activity are low in rural communities. There is significant merit in exploring the relationship between these interrelated concepts. A scoping review was conducted to synthesize existing literature. Search results identified 26 studies meeting inclusion criteria. Findings indicated that social interaction and physical activity were important for many older adults to maintain health; however, not all older adults preferred the social aspect of group-based exercise. Opportunities for physical activity and social interaction were limited based on geographical location and other socioeconomic factors. This was evident in rural communities where populations were lower and education and income levels varied. Differences on the defining role and meaning of physical activity also emerged. Increasing physical activity and social interaction must account for negative associations to address the lower rates of participation among rural older adults.

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Mahin Aghdaei, Alireza Farsi, Maryam Khalaji, and Jared Porter

Much research has been executed to investigate how altering focus of attention impacts performance and feelings of fatigue. Using a within-participant design, the present study examined how an associative and dissociative attentional in addition to an internal and external attentional dimension influenced the running economy of nonprofessional runners. Twelve women (aged 18–30 years old) ran on a treadmill at 70% of their predetermined maximum velocity. Participants ran in four counterbalanced conditions (dissociative-external, dissociative-internal, associative-external, and associative-internal). Average oxygen volume, respiration volume and breathing frequency, heart rate, blood lactate level, and Borg rating of perceived exertion were measured. Our findings revealed when participants adopted a dissociative-external focus of attention, they consumed less oxygen, had lower blood lactate, and a lower rating of perceived exertion compared with trials completed using an associative attention strategy. The findings of this study demonstrate that running economy is improved and feelings of fatigue are lowest when using a combination of a dissociative-external focus of attention.

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