Browse

You are looking at 21 - 30 of 6,398 items for :

  • Physical Education and Coaching x
  • Sport and Exercise Science/Kinesiology x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All
Restricted access

Defining Worst-Case-Scenario Thresholds in Soccer: Intensity Versus Volume

Mauro Mandorino and Mathieu Lacome

Purpose: This study aimed to enhance the understanding of soccer match peak demands by describing worst-case scenario (WCS) and time spent above 80% and 90% of the WCS for total distance (TD) and high-speed running (HSR). The investigation considered playing level (first team vs under-19 [U19] team) and playing position (center backs, fullbacks, midfielders, and forwards) to assess how WCS and the time spent above specific thresholds vary across different populations. Methods: Data from 31 players in a professional Italian soccer club were collected during the 2022–23 season. Microtechnology devices tracked physical activity during matches. Players were categorized by position, and WCS was determined using rolling averages over a 1-minute period. Time spent above 80% and 90% of WCS for TD and HSR was calculated. Results: The U19 team exhibited higher HSR WCS compared with the first team (∼63 m·min−1 vs ∼56 m·min−1). Midfielders recorded the highest TD WCS (∼208 m·min−1), and forwards exhibited the highest HSR WCS (∼70 m·min−1). The first team spent significantly more time above 80% (∼6 min) and 90% (∼1 min) of TD WCS. Midfielders spent significantly more time above the 80% (∼7 min) of TD WCS, while forwards above the 80% (∼2 min) of HSR WCS. Conclusions: The study emphasizes that WCS used alone may not sufficiently capture real match intensity. Considering the time spent above specific thresholds provides additional insights (ie, between-levels differences and position). Practitioners should consider both WCS and time spent above thresholds for individualized training prescriptions, reflecting differences in playing roles.

Free access

Erratum. Injury Prediction in Competitive Runners With Machine Learning

International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance

Restricted access

Intensity Gradients: A Novel Method for Interpreting External Loads in Football

Ruairidh McGregor, Liam Anderson, Matthew Weston, Thomas Brownlee, and Barry Drust

Purpose: Global navigation satellite system device–derived metrics are commonly represented by discrete zones with intensity often measured by standardizing volume to per-minute of activity duration. This approach is sensitive to imprecision in duration measurement and can lead to highly variable outcomes—transforming data from zones to a gradient may overcome this problem. The purpose of this study was to critically evaluate this approach for measuring team-sport activity demands. Methods: Data were collected from 129 first-team and 73 academy matches from a Scottish Premiership football club. Gradients were calculated for velocity, acceleration, and deceleration zones, along with per-minute values for several commonly used metrics. Means and 95% CIs were calculated for playing level, as well as first-team positional groups. Within-subject coefficients of variation were also calculated for match level, position, and individual groups. Results: The gradient approach showed consistency with per-minute metrics when measuring playing level and position groups. With coefficients of variation of 10.8% to 26.9%, the gradients demonstrated lower variability than most per-minute variables, which ranged from 10.7% to 84.5%. Conclusions: Gradients are a potentially useful way of describing intensity in team sports and compare favorably to existing intensity variables in their ability to distinguish between match types and position groups, providing evidence that gradient variables can be used to monitor match and training intensity in team sports.

Restricted access

Reliability and Validity of Predicted Performance in the Severe-Intensity Domain From the 3-Minute All-Out Running Test

Thierry Busso, Jaume Lloria-Varella, and Frederic Sabater-Pastor

Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the reliability and validity of the predicted distance–time relationship in the severe-intensity domain from a 3-minute all-out running test (3MT). Methods: Twelve runners performed two 3MTs (test #1 and test #2) on an outdoor 400-m track after familiarization. Eighteen-hertz Global Positioning System data were used to estimate critical speed (CS) and distance covered above CS (D′). Time to cover 1200 and 3600 m (T1200 and T3600, respectively) was predicted using CS and D′ estimates from each 3MT. Eight runners performed 2 time trials in a single visit to assess real T1200 and T3600. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and standard errors of measurement were calculated for reliability analysis. Results: Good to excellent reliability was found for CS, T1200, and T3600 estimates from 3MT (ICC  > .95, standard error of measurement between 1.3% and 2.2%), and poor reliability was found for D′ (ICC = .55, standard error of measurement = 27%). Predictions from 3MT were significantly correlated to actual T1200 (r = .87 and .85 for test #1 and test #2, respectively) and T3600 (r = .91 and .82 for test #1 and test #2, respectively). The calculation of error prediction showed a systematic error between predicted and real T3600 (6.4% and 7.8% for test #1 and test #2, respectively, P < .01) contrary to T1200 (P > .1). Random error was between 4.4% and 6.1% for both distances. Conclusions: Despite low reliability of D′, 3MT yielded a reliable predicted distance–time relationship allowing repeated measures to evidence change with training adaptation. However, caution should be taken with prediction of performance potential of a single individual because of substantial random error and significant underestimation of T3600.

Restricted access

Understanding the Kinematic Profile of 2 Underwater Pullout Breaststroke Techniques

Catarina C. Santos, Francisco A. Ferreira, Susana Soares, Ricardo J. Fernandes, João Paulo Vilas-Boas, and Mário J. Costa

Purpose: To compare the kinematic profile of 2 underwater pullout breaststroke techniques. Methods: Sixteen swimmers (9 men, 20.67 [2.71] y old; 7 women, 18.86 [0.83] y old) performed 3 × 25-m breaststroke using 2 pullout breaststroke techniques: Fly-Kick first and Combined. A speedometer was used to assess the peak and the mean velocity during the glide, propulsion, and recovery phases of both techniques, as well as for the total underwater sequence. The underwater distance was retrieved from video footage and was considered for each pullout technique. The range of motion of the knee during the fly-kick was also retrieved, and the time to complete the 25 m was considered the performance outcome, accompanied by the mean velocity, stroke rate, stroke length, and stroke index. Results: Velocity–time series showed different profiles between pullout techniques (P ≤ .05) mostly in the glide and propulsion phases for males and females, respectively. The mean velocity of 25 m was shown to be greater in females when using the Fly-Kick first technique (P = .05, d = 0.36). Greater values in total underwater distance and knee range of motion were also observed for this technique in both cohorts.  Conclusions: Female swimmers presented a higher performance when using the Fly-Kick first technique. Different kinematic profiles arise when swimmers use different underwater pullout techniques where the Fly-Kick first may allow them to reach higher kinematical standard.

Restricted access

In Situ Power–Cadence Relationship for 2-, 5-, and 20-Minute Duration: A Proof of Concept in Under-19 Cyclists

Yann Bertron, Maximilien Bowen, Pierre Samozino, Peter Leo, Alexandre Pacot, Jean-Baptiste Quiclet, Frédérique Hintzy, and Baptiste Morel

Background: The force–velocity relationship suggests that maximal power (P max) can only be produced in optimal torque (T opt) and cadence (C opt). However, the cadence at which mean maximal power (MMP) is produced has never been studied. This study aimed to determine the individual MMP–cadence relationship from in situ data. Method: We analyzed 1 year of data from 14 under-19 cyclists and calculated the MMP for each cadence between 50 and 120 rpm for 2-, 5-, and 20-minute durations. The MMP–cadence relationship was fit with a second-order polynomial function. The goodness of fit (r 2) and odd-day–even-day absolute and relative reliability were evaluated, respectively, for P max, T opt, and C opt. Results: The goodness of fit was very high for every duration studied. T opt and P max, but not C opt, were significantly higher for shorter durations. P max was significantly correlated only with T opt for the 3 durations (r 2 = .63, .71, and .64 for 2, 5, and 20 min, respectively). Discussion: Evaluation of the MMP–cadence relationship from in situ data is feasible and reliable for 2-, 5-, and 20-minute durations. This profiling approach would enable better detection of the strengths and weaknesses of cyclists and make it possible to design more effective training interventions. Practical Applications: The analysis makes it possible to identify the torque versus cadence component that individually limits power production. Knowing the C opt for a given duration of maximal effort could help athletes choose the right gear ratio and regulate cadence during a race in order to maximize performance.

Restricted access

Acute and Chronic Weight-Making Practice in Professional Mixed Martial Arts Athletes: An Analysis of 33 Athletes Across 80 Fights

Reid Reale, Junzhu Wang, Charles Hu Stull, Duncan French, Dean Amasinger, and Ran Wang

Mixed martial arts’ popularity has increased in recent years, alongside descriptive research and evidence-based performance recommendations. Guidelines for (both chronic and acute) weight making exist; however, how these translate in real-life scenarios and detailed investigations on practices in larger groups deserve attention. The present study examined the body mass (BM) and composition of 33 professional mixed martial arts athletes preparing for 80 fights. Athletes were supported by on-site dietitians, who encouraged evidence-based practices. Fasted BM was measured throughout the last ∼10 days before all bouts (acute weight management phase). A subset of athletes had body composition assessed before and after the chronic weight loss phase for 40 fights. Most athletes engaged in chronic BM loss, and all engaged in acute weight loss. Many lost fat-free mass (FFM) during the chronic phase, with rates of BM loss <0.5% best preserving FFM. Regardless of losses, the present athletes possessed greater FFM than other combat sport athletes and engaged in greater acute weight loss. Dehydration in the 24–48 hr before the weigh-in was not reflective of weight regain after the weigh-in, rather BM 7–10 days before the weigh-in was most reflective. These findings suggest that many mixed martial arts athletes could increase FFM at the time of competition by maintaining leaner physiques outside of competition and/or allowing increased time to reduce BM chronically. Acutely, athletes can utilize evidence-based protocols, eliminating carbohydrates, fiber, sodium, and finally fluid in a staged approach, before the weigh-in, reducing the amount of sweating required, thus theoretically better protecting health and preserving performance.

Restricted access

Durability and Underlying Physiological Factors: How Do They Change Throughout a Cycling Season in Semiprofessional Cyclists?

Jens G. Voet, Robert P. Lamberts, Aitor Viribay, Jos J. de Koning, and Teun van Erp

Purpose: To investigate how cycling time-trial (TT) performance changes over a cycling season, both in a “fresh” state and in a “fatigued” state (durability). Additionally, the aim was to explore whether these changes are related to changes in underlying physiological factors such as gross efficiency, energy expenditure (EE), and substrate oxidation (fat oxidation [FatOx] and carbohydrate oxidation [CarbOx]). Methods: Sixteen male semiprofessional cyclists visited the laboratory on 3 occasions during a cycling season (PRE, START, and IN) and underwent a performance test in both fresh and fatigued states (after 38.1 [4.9] kJ/kg), containing a submaximal warm-up for the measurement of gross efficiency, EE, FatOx, and CarbOx and a maximal TT of 1 (TT1min) and 10 minutes (TT10min). Results were compared across states (fresh vs fatigued) and periods (PRE, START, and IN). Results: The average power output (PO) in TT1min decreased (P < .05) from fresh to fatigued state across all observed periods, whereas there was no change in the PO in TT10min. Over the course of the season, the PO in TT1min in the fatigued state improved more compared with the PO in TT1min in the fresh state. Furthermore, while EE did not significantly change, there was an increase in FatOx and a decrease in CarbOx toward the fatigued state. These changes diminished during the cycling season (IN), indicating a greater contribution of CarbOx in the fatigued state. Conclusions: TT1min performance is more sensitive to fatigue compared with TT10min. Also, during a cycling season, durability improves more when compared with fresh maximal POs, which is also observed in the changes in substrate oxidation.

Restricted access

Relationship Between External Training Load and Session Rating of Perceived Exertion Training Impulse in Elite Sprinters

Matthew Thome, Sophia Nimphius, Matthew J. Jordan, and Robin T. Thorpe

Purpose: To quantify the change in session rating of perceived exertion training impulse (RPE-TRIMP) that may occur in response to increased running distance at 3 running velocity ranges in elite sprinters. Methods: We monitored training load in elite sprinters (women: n = 7; men: n = 11) using wearable Global Positioning System technology and RPE-TRIMP for a total of 681 individual training sessions during a 22-week competition-preparation period. Internal training load was operationalized by RPE-TRIMP, and external training load was operationalized by distance covered in 3 velocity ranges. A linear mixed-effects model with athlete as a random effect was fit to RPE-TRIMP with total distance covered at ≤69.99% (low-velocity running [LVR]), 70% to 84.99% (high-velocity running [HVR]), and 85% to 100% (very-high-velocity running [VHVR]) of individual maximum velocity. Results: Increased running distance in all 3 velocity ranges (LVR, HVR, and VHVR) resulted in a significant (P < .001) increase in RPE-TRIMP. Coefficients (95% CIs) were .10 (.08–.11) for LVR, .23 (.18–.28) for HVR, and .44 (.35–.53) for VHVR. A 50-m increase in running distance covered in the LVR, HVR, and VHVR velocity ranges was associated with increases in RPE-TRIMP of 5, 11.5, and 22 arbitrary units, respectively. Conclusions: Internal training load, calculated as RPE-TRIMP, increased with increases in total distance covered in the LVR, HVR, and VHVR velocity ranges (P < .001). RPE-TRIMP can be a practical solution for monitoring global training-session load in elite sprinters.

Restricted access

Sex Differences in Self-Reported Causes, Symptoms, and Recovery Strategies Associated With Underperformance in Endurance Athletes

Aarón Agudo-Ortega, Rune Kjøsen Talsnes, Hanna Eid, Øyvind Sandbakk, and Guro Strøm Solli

Purpose: This study investigated sex differences in self-reported causes, symptoms, and recovery strategies associated with underperformance in endurance athletes. Methods: A total of 82 athletes (40 women) meeting the inclusion criteria (performance level ≥tier 3, used training diaries, and experienced 1 or more periods of underperformance during their career) completed an online questionnaire. The questionnaire encompassed inquiries regarding load monitoring and experiences with underperformance, focusing on causes, symptoms, and recovery strategies. Results: The most frequently reported symptoms associated with underperformance included psychological (31%), physiological (23%), and health-related (12%) symptoms. Notably, female athletes were more likely to report psychological symptoms associated with underperformance (38% vs 25%, P = .01) compared with male athletes. The leading causes of underperformance comprised illness (21%), mental/emotional challenges (20%), training errors (12%), lack of recovery (10%), and nutritional challenges (5%). Female athletes reported nutritional challenges more frequently as the cause of underperformance compared with males (9% vs 1%, P = .01), whereas male athletes more often attributed underperformance to training errors (15% vs 9%, P = .03). Overall, 67% of athletes reported recovering from underperformance, with a tendency for more male than female athletes to recover (76% vs 58%, P = .07). Furthermore, a higher proportion of male than female athletes reported implementing changes in the training process as a recovery strategy (62% vs 35%, P = .02). Conclusions: This study offers valuable insights into sex differences in experiences with underperformance in endurance athletes. The findings could inform coaches and athletes in both the prevention and treatment of such incidents.