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Zachary L. Mannes, Erin G. Ferguson, Nicole Ennis, Deborah S. Hasin, and Linda B. Cottler

Over 80% of National Football League (NFL) retirees experience daily pain. Pain acceptance is an important psychological construct implicated in the intensity of chronic pain, though these findings have not been extended to NFL retirees. Therefore, the current study examined the association between pain acceptance and pain intensity among former NFL athletes. NFL retirees (N = 90) recruited from 2018 to 2019 completed questionnaires that assessed pain, substance use, and NFL career information. Multiple linear regression examined the association between current pain acceptance and pain intensity while adjusting for other risk factors of pain. NFL retirees reported average scores of 33.31 (SD = 10.00), and 2.18 (SD = 2.40) on measures of pain acceptance and pain intensity, respectively. After covariate adjustment, greater pain acceptance (β = −0.538, p < .001) was associated with lower pain intensity. These findings can further inform the behavioral and mental health care of retired NFL athletes.

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Ehsan Sinaei, Debra J. Rose, Samira Javadpour, and Amin Kordi Yoosefinejad

Recently, a short form of the Fullerton Advanced Balance (SF-FAB) scale was reported as a good predictor of falls in older adults. However, we found no evidence regarding its reliability in non-American older adults. Therefore, we aimed to analyze the reliability and homogeneity of the SF-FAB scale to measure postural balance in Iranian older adults. Eighty-five community-dwelling older adults (70.75 ± 4.97 years) performed the SF-FAB test on two occasions 1 week apart. In both instances, four raters assessed the performance on the test. The SF-FAB scale (mean total score: 12.46 ± 3.53) revealed acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = .77), excellent intrarater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = .94–.99), and excellent interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = .92–.99). The overall prediction success rate was 83.5% with correctly classifying 95.6% of nonfallers and 35.3% of fallers. The SF-FAB scale can provide a quick screen of balance status in older adults to trigger referral to clinicians for a more comprehensive assessment.

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Alexandra V. Carroll, Shelby J. Foote, Christopher K. Wirth, Sheri J. Brock, and Danielle D. Wadsworth

Physical fitness is associated with decreased weight in children, which helps improve youth obesity rates. Family programs can provide practical approaches to improving physical fitness for children. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of a family-based fitness intervention on changes in body composition, fitness status, and perceptions of obese children. Families attended exercise and education sessions for 60–90 min once per week for 10 weeks. Participants consisted of 10 children who participated in semi-structured interviews, body composition, and fitness assessments at pre- and posttest. Following the intervention, results showed that children had a significant increase in sit-ups (p = .03, effect size = 0.79), lean mass (p < .001, Cohen’s d = 1.95), and bone mineral content (p < .001, Cohen’s d = 0.46). Using thematic analysis, four main themes emerged from the pre- and postintervention interviews: an increase in after-school and weekend intentional physical fitness, rules regarding sedentary behavior and screen time, more prevalent physical fitness reinforcements, and a shift in perception of exercise. Results from this study indicate a family-based intervention had an influence on children’s appreciation for and engagement in physical fitness, as well as healthy body composition and fitness outcomes.

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Kimberly A. Clevenger, Jan Christian Brønd, Daniel Arvidsson, Alexander H.K. Montoye, Kelly A. Mackintosh, Melitta A. McNarry, and Karin A. Pfeiffer

Background: ActiGraph is a commonly used, research-grade accelerometer brand, but there is little information regarding intermonitor comparability of newer models. In addition, while sampling rate has been shown to influence accelerometer metrics, its influence on measures of free-living physical activity has not been directly studied. Purpose: To examine differences in physical activity metrics due to intermonitor variability and chosen sampling rate. Methods: Adults (n = 20) wore two hip-worn ActiGraph wGT3X-BT monitors for 1 week, with one accelerometer sampling at 30 Hz and the other at 100 Hz, which was downsampled to 30 Hz. Activity intensity was classified using vector magnitude, Euclidean Norm Minus One (ENMO), and mean amplitude deviation (MAD) cut points. Equivalence testing compared outcomes. Results: There was a lack of intermonitor equivalence for ENMO, time in sedentary/light- or moderate-intensity activity according to ENMO cut points, and time in moderate-intensity activity according to MAD cut points. Between sampling rates, differences existed for time in moderate-intensity activity according to vector magnitude, ENMO, and MAD cut points, and time in sedentary/light-intensity activity according to ENMO cut points. While mean differences were small (0.1–1.7 percentage points), this would equate to differences in moderate-to vigorous-intensity activity over a 10-hr wear day of 3.6 (MAD) to 10.8 (ENMO) min/day for intermonitor comparisons or 3.6 (vector magnitude) to 5.4 (ENMO) min/day for sampling rate. Conclusions: Epoch-level intermonitor differences were larger than differences due to sampling rate, but both may impact outcomes such as time spent in each activity intensity. ENMO was the least comparable metric between monitors or sampling rates.

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Nadia Cristina Valentini, Glauber Carvalho Nobre, Larissa Wagner Zanella, Keila G. Pereira, Maicon Rodrigues Albuquerque, and Mary Elizabeth Rudisill

Background: The Test of Gross Motor Development–3 (TGMD-3) is used to assess locomotor (LOCS) and ball (BS) skills in children. This test provides relevant information for evaluating learning and determining teaching efficacy. However, conducting and coding the test is time consuming. A screening form may improve its usage in specific settings and populations. Purpose: This study aimed to develop a screening form for the TGMD-3-SF and examine its validity and reliability. Method: We assessed 1,192 3-to-10-year-old children; 772 children completed the TGMD-3 and 420 the TGMD-3-SF; 114 children were retested for temporal stability and 300 for criterion validity. Results: We found appropriate results for the two-factors model, LOCS (gallop, hop, and skip) and BS (one-hand strike, kick, and overhand throw), RMSEA = .025, comparative-fit index = .99, and Tukey–Lewis index = .99; internal consistency (LOCS, α = .60; BS, α = .71); item validity (LOCS, r = .43, p < .001; BS, r = .47, p < .001); interrater (ICC = .86–.99), intrarater (ICC = .61–.92), test–retest (LOCS, ICC =.87; BS, ICC = .78) reliability, and concurrent validity (LOCS, r = .89, p < .01; BS, r = .90, p < .001). Conclusions: The TGMD-3-SF is valid and reliable for assessing children’s gross motor development.

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Siobhan K. Fitzpatrick and Janine V. Olthuis

American student-athletes (SAs) are at heightened risk for hazardous alcohol consumption compared with their nonathlete peers. However, little is known about this risk or the influence of psychosocial predictors on drinking behavior among Canadian SAs. This study compared rates of alcohol use across Canadian SAs and nonathletes and investigated whether the use of athlete-specific psychosocial predictors can improve the prediction of alcohol use outcomes in SAs. Participants (179 varsity athletes and 366 nonathletes) completed anonymous self-report questionnaires. Results suggest that Canadian athletes are at a heightened risk for experiencing alcohol-related problems compared with nonathletes, with general psychosocial predictors explaining the majority of variance in SA alcohol use. However, and quite notably, athlete-specific positive reinforcement motives predicted SA binge drinking. This research provides some of the first evidence of drinking-related problems among Canadian SAs and supports the potential use of preventative efforts to help SAs develop safe strategies for alcohol use.

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Carrie B. Scherzer, Jeremy Trenchuk, Meaghan Peters, and Robert Mazury

Athletes can be at elevated risk for developing eating disorders, the effects of which can be devastating. Few researchers have examined the influence of a predisposition toward an eating disorder on athletic injury. Exercise dependence might bridge the gap toward understanding this relationship. This study sought to examine the relationship between predisposition toward an eating disorder and exercise dependence and looked at both as predictors of athletic injury. College students (n = 132) completed the Eating Disorders Inventory and the Exercise Dependence Questionnaire, as well as provided demographic, activity, and injury information. Subscales of the Eating Disorders Inventory and Exercise Dependence Questionnaire were significant predictors of having at least one athletic injury in the preceding year. These findings suggest that both predisposition toward an eating disorder and exercise dependence may be contributing factors to injury.

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Ben William Strafford, Keith Davids, Jamie Stephen North, and Joseph Antony Stone

Contemporary learning and development models have identified parkour-style training as a vehicle for athlete enrichment. However, perceptions of team-sport coaches and their receptiveness to such models of athlete enrichment have not been investigated and remain unclear. To explore how parkour-style training could be integrated into athlete development programs in team sports, we interviewed sport practitioners to explore their preexisting knowledge of parkour and their perceptions on its potential applications. Experienced talent development (n = 10) and strength and conditioning coaches (n = 10) were interviewed using an open-ended, semistructured approach with a two-stage thematic analysis being conducted to identify themes. Three dimensions were identified: coaches’ general perceptions of parkour, potential applications of parkour, and feasibility of integrating parkour into athlete development programs. Participant perceptions revealed that: (a) parkour activities were viewed as supplementary activities to enrich sport-specific training routines, including use of obstacle courses and/or tag elements; (b) parkour-style obstacle environments needed to be scalable to allow individual athletes and coaches to manipulate object orientation and tasks using soft play and traditional gym equipment; and (c) the implementation of continued professional development opportunities, athlete-centered approaches to learning designs in sport, and coach–parent forums were recommended to support the integration of parkour-style training.

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Marziyeh Amraei and Elaheh Azadian

This study aims to investigate the effect of age and urban and rural living environments on children’s actual and perceived motor competence. To that end, 320 female students aged 8–12 years were selected through random cluster sampling. The perceived motor competence of the participants was assessed using Marsh’s Physical Self-Description Questionnaire, and their actual motor competence was measured by the Test of Gross Motor Development-3. The results showed significant differences between urban and rural girls in perceived and actual motor competence (p < .05). However, age did not make any significant difference in motor competence (p > .05). The most significant differences in actual and perceived motor competence between urban and rural girls were observed in girls aged 8 and 10 (p < .05). The findings also indicated that rural children performed better in actual motor skills, especially ball skills. Therefore, based on the findings, it was concluded that the rural environment could have a greater impact on actual motor competence.

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Vitor P. Lopes and Luis P. Rodrigues

Understanding the mechanisms associated with engaging in physical activity (PA) is crucial for its promotion. The aim was to analyze the relationship between motor competence (MC) and PA and the role of physical fitness (PF). Participants were N = 1,064 children of both sexes (n = 530 girls) and 7.87 ± 1.17 years of age. MC was assessed with KörperkoordinationTest für Kinder. PF was assessed with 50-yard dash, 1-mile run/walk, and standing long jump. PA was assessed with a questionnaire. Mediation and moderation were determined according to Baron and Kenny using Sobel test for indirect effect and using PROCESS (version 3.4). Mediation results showed perfect mediation in girls but not in boys and not when all participants were included in the analysis. The linear moderation was significant for all participants and for boys and girls apart. However, the results of conditional effects of MC at the 16th, 50th, and 84th percentile of the PF, which became significant at the 50th percentile for all participants and for boys, were not significant in girls. In conclusion, perfect mediation seems to exist in girls but not in boys. In boys, the relationship between MC and PA seems conditioned by the PF levels.