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María J. Oliveros, Pamela Serón, Fernando Lanas, and Shrikant I. Bangdiwala

Background: Although low levels of physical activity have slightly decreased globally, the need to reverse the physical inactivity remains urgent. One approach has been the installation of outdoor gyms (OGs). Method: A natural experiment arose from the installation of OGs in different neighborhoods of the city of Temuco, Chile. Baseline measurements were collected between 2006 and 2017 in a cohort of adults participating in the Prospective Urban & Rural Epidemiology study. Physical activity was assessed with the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and time-varying covariates was assessed every 3 years. The multistage hierarchical, nested sampling process and the follow-up assessments led to data correlated at different levels, thus the authors analyzed the data using a logistic multilevel model. Result: 2463 urban adults from 16 neighborhoods, with an average age of 51.7 (9.8) years (67% female), were included. Having an adequate number of OGs improved the odds of complying with the World Health Organization’s recommendations (adjusted odds ratio = 4.64, 3.95–5.45). In addition, being male (odds ratio = 1.53, 1.32–1.77) and under the age of 60 years (odds ratio = 0.83, 0.71–0.97) were associated with being physically active. Conclusion: The presence of more OGs can have a positive impact on physical activity recommendations.

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Pooja Bhati and M. Ejaz Hussain

Background: Though cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a common complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); still, there is lack of clarity on pathophysiological correlates for its onset and progression. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the predictive ability of lifestyle and cardiometabolic risk factors for CAN in T2DM patients. Methods: A total of 105 Indian T2DM patients were recruited in the present study. Cardiometabolic risk factors, such as glycemic control, lipids, resting heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and lifestyle risk parameters, such as physical activity levels and sleep quality were assessed. Standard cardiovascular autonomic reflex tests were performed for diagnosing CAN by Ewing’s criteria. Results: Leisure-time physical activity and glycosylated hemoglobin were significant independent predictors of CAN in T2DM. Leisure-time physical activity and glycosylated hemoglobin predicted the occurrence of CAN at cutoff values ≤4.68 metabolic equivalent-hours per week (P = .007) and >7.5% (P = .002), respectively. Conclusions: The T2DM patients should be encouraged to engage in leisure-time physical activity of at least 4.68 metabolic equivalent-hours per week (equivalent to 1.2 h of walk or 0.6 h of jog per week) and therapeutic strategies for controlling hyperglycemia in T2DM should aim to reduce glycosylated hemoglobin below 7.5% to reduce CAN occurrence.

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Melanie N. Beale, Heather J. Leach, Bridget A. Baxter, Hillary V. Smith, Kate Lyden, and Elizabeth P. Ryan

Background: Adenomatous polyps are associated with an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. Physical activity (PA) and spending less time sedentary may reduce risk of polyp recurrence and cancer incidence. This study examined associations between PA, sedentary time, and stool metabolites in adults at high risk for developing colorectal cancer. Methods: Participants were ≥18 years old with ≥1 adenomatous polyps removed in the previous 3 years. PA and sedentary time were assessed using an activPAL accelerometer. Stool samples were analyzed for short-chain fatty acids, and primary/secondary bile acid metabolites by mass spectrometry. Linear regression models examined associations between PA, sedentary time, and stool parameters, with dietary fiber as a covariate. Results: Participants (N = 21) were 59 (9) years old and had a body mass index of 28.1 (3.35 kg/m2). Light-intensity PA was associated with butyrate (β = 1.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.477 to 3.291) and propionate (β = 1.79; 95% CI, 0.862 to 2.724). Moderate to vigorous PA was associated with deoxycholic acid (β = −6.13; 95% CI, −12.14 to −0.11) and ursodeoxycholic acid (β = −0.45; 95% CI, −0.80 to −0.12) abundance. Conclusions: Both light and moderate to vigorous PA were associated with gut microbial metabolite production. These findings suggest the importance of examining PA intensity alongside stool metabolites for colorectal cancer prevention.

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Mariana Wingood, Levi Bonnell, Andrea Z. LaCroix, Dori Rosenberg, Rod Walker, John Bellettiere, Mikael Anne Greenwood-Hickman, David Wing, and Nancy Gell

Though it is known that most older adults do not meet the recommended physical activity (PA) guidelines, little is known regarding their participation in balance activities or the full guidelines. Therefore, we sought to describe PA patterns among 1,352 community-dwelling older adult participants of the Adult Changes in Thought study, a longitudinal cohort study exploring dementia-related risk factors. We used a modified version of the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors questionnaire to explore PA performed and classify participants as meeting or not meeting the full guidelines or any component of the guidelines. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with meeting PA guidelines. Despite performing 10 hr of weekly PA, only 11% of participants met the full guidelines. Older age, greater body mass index, needing assistance with instrumental daily activities, and heart disease were associated with decreased odds of meeting PA guidelines. These results can guide interventions that address PA among older adults.

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Katja Siefken, Andrea Ramirez Varela, Temo Waqanivalu, and Nico Schulenkorf

Since 2020, the world has been navigating an epidemiologic transition with both infectious diseases (COVID-19) and noncommunicable diseases intertwined in complex and diverse ways. In fact, the pandemics of physical inactivity, noncommunicable diseases, and COVID-19 coincide in a tragically impactful ménage à trois with their detrimental long-term health consequences yet to be determined. We know that people in low- and middle-income countries not only have the highest risk of developing chronic diseases, they also develop the diseases at a younger age, they suffer longer, and they die earlier than people in high-income countries. This commentary features 5 compelling reasons for putting physical activity in low- and middle-income countries high up on the public health research agenda and calls for more commitment to inclusive and context-specific public health practices that are paired with locally relevant promotion and facilitation of PA practice, research, and policymaking.

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Suri Duitch

This article is based on a keynote address at the 2021 American Kinesiology Association’s Annual Leadership Workshop, for which I was asked to talk about the future of work in connection to higher education. I am familiar with the kinesiology field in my role as Dean of the School of Professional Advancement at Tulane University. This article touches on issues important to the field of kinesiology that may also be applied across other academic disciplines. Technology is changing the nature of work; the global pandemic has sped up the pace of that change. Beyond this, the potential for future pandemics and other transformational events and trends mean that work is in a state of permanent flux. Preparing students for future success in this environment requires educators to think more broadly and holistically about their roles. Higher education institutions also, arguably, have a responsibility not just to educate, but to model workplace culture.

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Matthew T. Mahar, Harsimran Baweja, Matthew Atencio, Harald Barkhoff, Helen Yolisa Duley, Gail Makuakāne-Lundin, ZáNean D. McClain, Misty Pacheco, E. Missy Wright, and Jared Russell

The aim of this paper is to emphasize the value of developing cultural awareness in kinesiology students to prepare them to enter the workforce in a world where the principles of justice, equity, diversity, and inclusion are evolving. The authors provide examples of sustained and impactful practices from three kinesiology units in higher education that have been recognized with the American Kinesiology Association Inclusive Excellence Award. The case studies demonstrate that institutional support for inclusive excellence is instrumental in development of sustainable experiences. Kinesiology leaders can demonstrate commitment to inclusive excellence by supporting faculty who conduct teaching, research, and service activities that meet their institution’s inclusive excellence goals. Other areas where kinesiology units can influence student development include curriculum, student engagement activities, university and community partnerships, and leadership for inclusive excellence.

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Benjamin T. Schumacher, John Bellettiere, Michael J. LaMonte, Kelly R. Evenson, Chongzhi Di, I-Min Lee, David A. Sleet, Charles B. Eaton, Cora E. Lewis, Karen L. Margolis, Lesley F. Tinker, and Andrea Z. LaCroix

Steps per day were measured by accelerometer for 7 days among 5,545 women aged 63–97 years between 2012 and 2014. Incident falls were ascertained from daily fall calendars for 13 months. Median steps per day were 3,216. There were 5,473 falls recorded over 61,564 fall calendar-months. The adjusted incidence rate ratio comparing women in the highest versus lowest step quartiles was 0.71 (95% confidence interval [0.54, 0.95]; p trend across quartiles = .01). After further adjustment for physical function using the Short Physical Performance Battery, the incidence rate ratio was 0.86 ([0.64, 1.16]; p trend = .27). Mediation analysis estimated that 63.7% of the association may be mediated by physical function (p = .03). In conclusion, higher steps per day were related to lower incident falls primarily through their beneficial association with physical functioning. Interventions that improve physical function, including those that involve stepping, could reduce falls in older adults.

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Domingo Jesús Ramos-Campo, Luis Andreu-Caravaca, María Carrasco-Poyatos, Pedro J. Benito, and Jacobo Ángel Rubio-Arias

A systematic review with meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the effects of circuit resistance training (CRT) on cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, and body composition in middle-aged and older women. Sixteen studies were included in the meta-analysis. The CRT interventions led to a significant decrease in weight, body mass index, and fat mass along with an increase in muscle mass. Significant differences were found in the fat mass and a trend to develop muscle mass when compared with the control group. CRT led to a significant increase in VO2max, walking endurance, and time to exhaustion; likewise, significant differences were observed when compared with the control group. CRT had a moderate and large favorable effect on arm, trunk, and lower limb strength. Furthermore, the increases in strength observed in the CRT were significantly greater than the changes observed in the control group. In middle-aged and older women, CRT improved cardiorespiratory fitness and strength and optimized body composition.

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Pamela Beach, Melanie Perreault, and Leapetswe Malete

As the importance of intercultural competence increases for future professionals, kinesiology faculty should consider internationalizing their curriculum. Faculty can promote intercultural competence through a variety of experiences, including studying abroad, attending international conferences, or adding a virtual exchange component to their classes. Global engagement in the classroom allows students to examine problem solving by scholars globally and enhances soft skills and career readiness skills. Because international travel through study abroad programs poses many challenges, this paper will focus upon an alternative, virtual exchange that can be implemented in any kinesiology or related course. Faculty can implement virtual exchanges with either an international class or a nonprofit organization on a large (e.g., complete course) or small scale (e.g., collaborative project). A sample design and tips for developing a collaborative project in a kinesiology course will be discussed to provide kinesiology faculty with a framework to begin a partnership around international course collaboration.