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The Effects of Positive Versus Negative Self-Talk on Vertical Jump in Soccer Players: The Moderating Role of Need for Cognition

Javier Horcajo and Rafael Mateos

The current study analyzed the effects of positive versus negative self-talk on physical performance in soccer players from a multiprocess approach. We operationalized the process distinction using the need-for-cognition (NC) construct. Thus, NC was measured and self-talk (i.e., positive vs. negative) was manipulated between participants (i.e., 126 soccer players, age 18 years or older, who were competing in national, regional, or local competitions). Physical performance was assessed by a vertical-jump test. According to hypothesis, regression analyses indicated that positive versus negative self-talk influenced physical performance to a greater extent for high-NC individuals than for low-NC individuals. Specifically, among high-NC soccer players, relative to baseline, positive self-talk produced greater physical performance in the vertical-jump test than negative self-talk. In contrast, among low-NC soccer players, no difference was found between positive and negative self-talk on physical performance. These results supported the moderating role of NC.

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An Ego-Involving Motivational Climate Can Trigger Inflammation, a Threat Appraisal, and Basic Psychological Need Frustration in an Achievement Context

Candace M. Hogue

In this experimental investigation, male college students (N = 56; M age = 19.95 years) who did not yet know how to juggle were randomly assigned to a 30-min instructional juggling session with either a caring, task-involving climate or an ego-involving climate. An inflammatory response to psychosocial stress was assessed via salivary interleukin-6 prior to (t = 0) and following (t = +30, +45, +60 min) the session. Surveys were utilized to examine positive and negative affect prior to the session and affect, psychological needs, challenge and threat appraisals, and perceived ability to juggle following the session. This is the first investigation to show that ego-involving climates can trigger inflammation, along with maladaptive psychological responses. Participants in the caring, task-involving climate responded with greater psychological need satisfaction, resource evaluations, positive affect, and perceived juggling ability. This research suggests there may be important physiological consequences to ego-involving climates, in addition to concerning cognitive, affective, and behavioral responses.

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Athletes’ Coping With the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Role of Self-Compassion and Cognitive Appraisal

Brittney B. Aceron, Kathleen S. Wilson, Matt D. Hoffmann, and Lenny Wiersma

Coping with the COVID-19 pandemic had implications for athletes’ mental well-being. This mixed-methods study examined the influence of self-compassion on athletes’ coping during the pandemic through the mediator of cognitive appraisal. The prospective design involved 90 athletes completing two online surveys 1 week apart measuring self-compassion, cognitive appraisal, and coping strategies. The PROCESS macro was used for the mediation analysis. A qualitative thematic analysis was used to explore athletes’ responses to the pandemic during the second survey. Self-compassion had an indirect negative effect on avoidance-focused coping by appraising the pandemic as less of a threat (95% confidence interval [−0.20, −0.001]) and had a total effect on emotion-focused coping (95% confidence interval [0.02, 0.40]). Based on the thematic analysis, athletes described many raw emotions and a variety of coping strategies during the pandemic. Self-compassion demonstrated promising benefits to athletes who dealt with the challenging situation of the pandemic.

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Team Efficacy Profiles: Congruence Predicts Objective Performance of Athlete Pairs

Christine M. Habeeb, Sarah A. Stephen, and Robert C. Eklund

Efficacy beliefs targeting personal (self-efficacy), teammates’ (other-efficacy), and conjoint (collective efficacy) abilities are each associated with performance of athlete pairs. The purpose of this study was to examine (a) congruence/incongruence of efficacy beliefs between athletes in a pair as a predictor of quality of individual and team performance and (b) quality of performance relative to efficacy congruence at high, moderate, and low levels of efficacy. Eighty-two cheerleading pairs, composed of one base and one flyer, completed questionnaires assessing self-, other, and collective efficacy prior to a national collegiate competition. Individual and team performances were assessed using objective criteria. Polynomial regression analyses indicated that team performance was predicted by congruence of (a) both athletes’ collective efficacy beliefs and (b) base self-efficacy and flyer other efficacy. Findings supported that congruence at moderate to high levels of efficacy was associated with better performance relative to incongruent efficacy beliefs across the two athletes.

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Kim Gammage, Erica Bennett, Alyson Crozier, Alison Ede, Matt Hoffman, Seungmin Lee, Sascha Leisterer, Sean Locke, Desi McEwan, Kathleen Mellano, Eva Pila, and Matthew Stork

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Effects of Acute Physical Fatigue on Gaze Behavior in Expert Badminton Players

Mildred Loiseau Taupin, Alexis Ruffault, Jean Slawinski, and Dimitri Bayle

Perceptual cognitive skills in real game settings, under conditions of fatigue, such as the ability to gather relevant visual information, are key factors in achieving motor goals in sports. The objectives were to evaluate the effects of acute physical fatigue on gaze behavior during a badminton game (Study 1) and in an unfavorable force ratio situation (Study 2). Six international-level badminton players played two sets and unfavorable force ratio situations while wearing eye-tracking glasses before and after a fatiguing task. During the set, fatiguing physical exercise led to fewer fixations per exchange and more fixations on one area of interest. During unfavorable force ratio situations, fatiguing physical exercise led to shorter fixation durations per exchange, shorter fixation durations on two areas of interest, and longer fixation durations on one area of interest. The results showed that gaze behaviors were adapted in acute physical fatigue conditions to maintain performance.

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Concussion Risk and Recovery in Athletes With Psychostimulant-Treated Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Findings From the NCAA-DOD CARE Consortium

Colt A. Coffman, Brett S. Gunn, Paul F. Pasquina, Michael A. McCrea, Thomas W. McAllister, Steven P. Broglio, Robert D. Moore, and Matthew B. Pontifex

The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of attention–deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) –related psychostimulant use in the context of concussion risk and symptom recovery. Data were obtained from the National Collegiate Athletic Association Department of Defense Grand Alliance Concussion Assessment, Research, and Education (NCAA-DOD CARE) Consortium from 2014 to 2017. Relative to individuals without diagnosed ADHD (i.e., control), both ADHD diagnosis and the combination of ADHD diagnosis and psychostimulant use were associated with a greater risk of incurring a concussive injury. Following a concussive injury, ADHD diagnosis was associated with longer symptom recovery time relative to the control group. However, individuals with ADHD who use psychostimulants did not take longer to resolve symptoms than controls, suggesting that psychostimulants may have a positive influence on recovery. Regardless of time point, ADHD diagnosis was associated with an elevated number of concussion-related symptoms; however, this effect appears mitigated by having used ADHD-related psychostimulants.

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Volume 45 (2023): Issue 6 (Dec 2023)

Open access

The Psychometric Properties of Two Brief Measures of Teamwork in Sport

Desmond McEwan, Eesha J. Shah, Kaitlin L. Crawford, Patricia C. Jackman, Matt D. Hoffmann, Ethan Cardinal, Mark W. Bruner, Colin D. McLaren, and Alex J. Benson

In the current study, the structural and external validity of data derived from two shorter versions of the Multidimensional Assessment of Teamwork in Sport (MATS) were examined using multilevel analyses. Evidence of model–data fit was shown for both a 5-factor model comprising 19 items (with subscales assessing teamwork preparation, execution, evaluation, adjustments, and management of team maintenance) and a single-factor model comprising five items (providing a global estimate of teamwork). In general, data from both versions were positively and significantly correlated with (and distinct from) athletes’ perceptions of team cohesion, collective efficacy, performance satisfaction, enjoyment in their sport, and commitment to their team and their coaches’ transformational leadership. The measures appear well suited to detect between-teams differences, as evidenced by intraclass correlation coefficients and acceptable reliability estimates of team-level scores. In summary, the 19-item Multidimensional Assessment of Teamwork in Sport-Short and five-item Multidimensional Assessment of Teamwork in Sport-Global provide conceptually and psychometrically sound questionnaires to briefly measure teamwork in sport.

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Player Perceptions of Face Validity and Fidelity in 360-Video and Virtual Reality Cricket

Oliver R. Runswick

Virtual reality (VR) and 360° video can provide new opportunities for testing and training in sport. Both options offer different benefits in terms of efficacy for training, ease of use, and cost. This creates questions about the implementation of immersive technologies, and research is required to further understand their use. We aimed to gain initial evidence of athletes’ perceptions of face validity and fidelity in VR and 360-video. Thirty-nine international pathway cricketers experienced five overs in VR cricket and in a 360-video recording. After trying each technology, players completed questionnaires to measure perceptions of presence and task workload. Participants reported immersive experience in both methods, but higher levels of realism, possibility to act, physical effort, temporal constraints, and task control in VR. 360-video offers a better possibility to visually examine the environment, while VR offers enhanced realism and physical elements, but 360-video may still offer affordable solutions for visual tasks.