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Hananeh Younesian, Thomas Legrand, Ludovic Miramand, Sarah Beausoleil, and Katia Turcot

Inertial measurement units and normative values enable clinicians to quantify clinical walking tests and set rehabilitation goals. Objectives of this study were (1) to compare time- and distance-based walking tests in individuals with lower limb amputation (iLLA) and normative values following rehabilitation discharge (T1) and 6 weeks after discharge (T2) and (2) to investigate spatiotemporal and foot kinematic parameters over a 6-minute walk test using inertial measurement units. Twelve iLLA participated in this study. Distance, cadence, stance ratio, loading rate ratio, push-up ratio, path length, and minimum toe clearance were analyzed during 6-minute walk test. Nonparametric repeated-measures analysis of variance tests, Bonferroni corrections, were performed. Time of distance-based walking tests diminished at T2 (P < .02). Compared with normative values, walking performance in iLLA was reduced. Cadence at T2 increased significantly (P = .026). Stance ratio increased in both legs at T2 (P < .05). Push-up ratio tended to decrease at T2 in the amputated leg (P = .0003). Variability of path length and minimum toe clearance at T2 were less than at T1 in the nonamputated leg (P < .05). Spatiotemporal improvement at T2 could be due to prosthesis adaptation in iLLA. The lower performance of the functional walk test compared with normative values could be due to amputation and pain-related fatigue.

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Sara Oliveira, Marina Cunha, António Rosado, and Cláudia Ferreira

This study aimed to test a model that hypothesized that the compassionate coach, as perceived by the athletes, has an impact on athlete-related social safeness and psychological health, through shame and self-criticism. The sample comprised 270 Portuguese adult athletes, who practiced different competitive sports. The path analysis results confirmed the adequacy of the proposed model, which explained 45% of the psychological health’s variance. Results demonstrated that athletes who perceive their coaches as more compassionate tend to present higher levels of social safeness (feelings of belonging to the team) and of psychological health, through lower levels of shame and self-criticism. These novel findings suggest the importance of the adoption of supportive, warm, safe, and compassionate attitudes from coaches in athletes’ mental health. This study also offers important insights by suggesting that feelings of acceptance and connectedness in team relationships may be at the root of athletes’ emotional processes and well-being.

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Eric J. Shumski, Tricia M. Kasamatsu, Kathleen S. Wilson, and Derek N. Pamukoff

Research has identified an increased risk of lower extremity injury postconcussion, which may be due to aberrant biomechanics during dynamic tasks. The purpose of this study was to compare the drop landing biomechanics between individuals with and without a concussion history. Twenty-five individuals with and 25 without a concussion history were matched on age (±3 y), sex, and body mass index (±1 kg/m2). Three-dimensional landing biomechanics were recorded to obtain dependent variables (peak vertical ground reaction force, loading rate, knee flexion angle and external moment, knee abduction angle and external moment, and knee flexion and abduction angle at ground contact). A 1-way multivariate analysis of variance compared outcomes between groups. There was no difference in drop landing biomechanics between individuals with and without a concussion history (F 10,39 = 0.460, P = .877, Wilk Λ= .918). There was an effect of time since concussion on knee flexion characteristics. Time since most recent concussion explained a significant amount of variation in both peak (ΔR 2 = .177, β = −0.305, ΔP = .046) and initial ground contact (ΔR 2 = .292, β = −0.204, ΔP = .008) knee flexion angle after covarying for sex and body mass index. Therefore, time since concussion should be considered when evaluating biomechanical patterns.

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Jill L. McNitt-Gray

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Susumu Iwasaki, Mary D. Fry, and Candace M. Hogue

The purpose of this study was to examine the mediating role of mindful engagement in the relationship between male high school athletes’ motivational climate perceptions on their teams (i.e., caring, task-, and ego-involving climate) to athlete coachability. Athletes (N = 164, M age = 15.58 years) from multiple sports completed measures assessing mindful engagement in sport (Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale—Revised), Caring Climate Scale, task- and ego-involving climate perceptions (Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire), and coachability (Athletic Coping Skills Inventory). Initial bivariate correlations linked mindful engagement and coachability positively with perceptions of a caring and task-involving climate and negatively with ego-involving climate perceptions. Structural equation modeling analyses then revealed mindful engagement mediated the relationship between climate and coachability. Encouraging coaches and players to foster a caring/task-involving climate might assist in enhancing athletes’ mindful engagement in sport, which may positively influence the degree to which they are coachable.

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Dhruv Gupta, Jeffrey A. Reinbolt, and Cyril J. Donnelly

Knee abduction/adduction moment and knee internal rotation moment are known surrogate measures of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) load during tasks like sidestepping and single-leg landing. Previous experimental literature has shown that a variety of kinematic strategies are associated or correlated with ACL injury risk; however, the optimal kinematic strategies needed to reduce peak knee moments and ACL injury are not well understood. To understand the complex, multifaceted kinematic factors underpinning ACL injury risk and to optimize kinematics to prevent the ACL injury, a musculoskeletal modeling and simulation experimental design was used. A 14-segment, 37-degree-of-freedom, dynamically consistent skeletal model driven by force/torque actuators was used to simulate whole-body single-leg jump landing kinematics. Using the residual reduction algorithm in OpenSim, whole-body kinematics were optimized to reduce the peak knee abduction/adduction and internal/external rotation moments simultaneously. This optimization was repeated across 30 single-leg jump landing trials from 10 participants. The general optimal kinematic strategy was to bring the knee to a more neutral alignment in the transverse plane and frontal plane (featured by reduced hip adduction angle and increased knee adduction angle). This optimized whole-body kinematic strategy significantly reduced the peak knee abduction/adduction and internal rotation moments, transferring most of the knee load to the hip.

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Dana K. Voelker, Nick Galli, Maya Miyairi, Justine J. Reel, and Karley James

Unhealthy cognitive–emotional relationships with exercise can hinder positive treatment outcomes when left unaddressed. However, clinicians lack validated tools to monitor this aspect of treatment. This study examined the 14-item Intuitive Exercise Scale with 165 patients in the United States (M age = 26.48 years) who were receiving treatment for an eating disorder. The original factor structure was inadequate for the current sample, and exploratory factor analysis generated three factors—emotional exercise, body intuition, and exercise variety. The three-factor solution yielded strong internal consistency and partial support for the scale’s validity. Furthermore, patients scored lowest in body intuition, confirming low awareness of bodily cues common in patients with eating disorders. This study informs how clinicians may integrate and monitor patients’ cognitive–emotional relationship with exercise as part of holistic and intuitive eating disorder treatment approaches.

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Graig M. Chow, Matthew D. Bird, Stinne Soendergaard, and Todd A. Gilson

The rate of alcohol consumption among student-athletes places them at risk for engaging in unsafe behaviors. Although coaches play a key role in regulating alcohol use among athletes, many lack the knowledge and self-confidence to be effective. This study aimed to examine the relationship between alcohol consumption literacy and alcohol confrontation efficacy among National Collegiate Athletic Association head coaches and attempted to identify types of training and education wanted to better manage student-athlete alcohol use. A total of 518 National Collegiate Athletic Association head coaches completed alcohol consumption literacy and alcohol confrontation efficacy measures and two open-ended questions about what kind of alcohol training, information, and skills were needed. When accounting for previous education/training and gender of team coached, alcohol consumption literacy predicted all confrontation efficacy subscales. Content analysis showed coaches wanted training related to alcohol literacy, effective communication, and prevention planning. Findings have implications for designing alcohol prevention and intervention programs aimed at National Collegiate Athletic Association coaches.

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Brenda Carolina Nájera Chávez, Stefan Mark Rueckriegel, Roland Burghardt, and Pablo Hernáiz Driever

Drawing and handwriting are fine motor skills acquired during childhood. We analyzed the development of laterality by comparing the performance of the dominant with the nondominant hand and the effect of bimanual interference in kinematic hand movement parameters (speed, automation, variability, and pressure). Healthy subjects (n = 187, 6–18 years) performed drawing tasks with both hands on a digitizing tablet followed by performance in the presence of an interfering task of the nondominant hand. Age correlated positively with speed, automation, and pressure, and negatively with variability for both hands. As task complexity increased, differences between both hands were less pronounced. Playing an instrument had a positive effect on the nondominant hand. Speed and automation showed a strong association with lateralization. Bimanual interference was associated with an increase of speed and variability. Maturation of hand laterality and the extent of bimanual interference in fine motor tasks are age-dependent processes.

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Jessica Murphy, Christopher Gladney, and Philip Sullivan

Student athletes balance academic, social, and athletic demands, often leading to increased levels of stress and poor sleep. This study explores the relationship between sleep quality, sleep hygiene, and psychological distress in a sample of student athletes. Ninety-four student athletes completed the six-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6), Sleep Hygiene Practice Scale, and four components from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Age, gender, and sport were also collected. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index revealed that 44.7% of student athletes received ≥6.5 hr of sleep each night; 31% of athletes showed signs of severe mental illness according to the K6. Stepwise regression predicted K6 scores with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Sleep Hygiene Practice Scale scores as independent variables. A significant model accounting for 26% of the variation in K6 scores emerged; sleep schedule and sleep disturbances were significant predictors. Athletic staff should highlight the importance of sleep for mental health; suggestions on how to help athletes are provided.