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Mina Milad, Christine Karungi, Abdus Sattar, Victor Musiime, Rashidah Nazzinda, Grace A. McComsey, and Sahera Dirajlal-Fargo

Background: The present study aims to understand the socioeconomic and physical activity impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on children living with perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV) and without HIV (HIV−) in Kampala (Uganda). Methods: The authors included children aged 10–18 years who filled out questionnaires at baseline (2017–2018, prepandemic) and 2 years later (March 2020–January 2021, pandemic) in an observational cohort study at Joint Clinical Research Centre (Kampala). Physical activity energy expenditure was calculated using a youth compendium from the National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research. Descriptive and standard test statistics including Kruskal–Wallis were used. Results: One hundred and ninety-eight children from Kampala Uganda were included prepandemic (101 PHIV and 97 HIV−); 131 (71 PHIV and 60 HIV−) had information collected during the pandemic. At baseline, median and interquartile range age was 13 years (11; 15), and 52% were females. During the pandemic, overall weekly physical activity increased by a median of 854 minutes (interquartile range: 270–1890), and energy expenditures increased by 16% in both PHIV and in HIV− (P < .001 for groups overall prepandemic vs pandemic). Conclusions: The authors found in this Ugandan cohort of children that children engaged in more physical activity. Further research is warranted to understand the long-term effects of the pandemic on children’s well-being.

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Satu Kaski, Monna Arvinen-Barrow, Ulla Kinnunen, and Jari Parkkari

The aim of the present study was to identify profiles of elite athlete mental well- and ill-being and study how the profiles (i.e., subgroups of athletes) differed in sport-related demands and resources. A total of 259 Finnish elite athletes (n = 170 active and n = 89 retired) completed quantitative self-report inventories. Through cluster analysis, four profiles of mental well- and ill-being were identified. Profile 1 was overrepresented by retired, older, and male athletes, and characterized by good mental well-being. Profile 2 consisted mainly of active athletes who reported mild risk for alcohol abuse. Profile 3 consisted mainly of women who displayed possible presence of an eating disorder. Profile 4 was typical of young athletes with mental ill-being. The balance between sport-related demands and resources appeared to be the healthiest in Profile 1 and worst in Profile 4. The present findings are beneficial for those who work with and/or provide psychological support to athletes.

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Courtney C. Walton, Kelsey J. Lewis, James Kirby, Rosemary Purcell, Simon M. Rice, and Margaret S. Osborne

This cross-sectional study explored athlete responses to the Compassion Motivation and Action Scales Self-Compassion Scale, examining its relationship with well-being. Athlete (N = 207; mean age 27.9 years) scores were consistent with previous population means. Scores on the Compassion Motivation and Action Scales Self-Compassion Scale did not differ between elite and nonelite athletes, nor did they correlate significantly with trait competitiveness. Significant differences emerged based on athlete well-being state, with athletes categorized as “flourishing” scoring higher on the total score and all subscales of the Compassion Motivation and Action Scales Self-Compassion Scale, as compared with those with “moderate mental health” (Cohen’s ds from 0.58 to 0.92). Furthermore, the distress tolerance subscale significantly mediated the relationship between self-compassion intentions and well-being (indirect path: B = 0.034, p < .001). The results suggest that self-compassionate intentions are not enough, and athletes may need support to tolerate the distress that comes with moving toward one’s own suffering.

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Rodrigo Sudatti Delevatti, Thais Reichert, Cláudia Gomes Bracht, Salime Donida Chedid Lisboa, Elisa Corrêa Marson, Rochelle Rocha Costa, Ana Carolina Kanitz, Vitória Bones, Ricardo Stein, and Luiz Fernando Martins Kruel

Background: To compare the effects of aquatic aerobic and combined (aerobic more resistance) training on glycemic control and other cardiometabolic outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: Patients were randomized to an aquatic aerobic training (AERO, n = 19; 57.5 [7.4] y; 9 [47%] women), or an aquatic combined training (COMBI, n = 19; 60.9 [7.4] y; 10 [53%] women), or an aquatic active procedure control (n = 19; 58.6 [9.7] y; 10 [53%] women) in 3 weekly sessions (50 min each), during 15 weeks. Glycated hemoglobin was the primary outcome, whereas insulin resistance markers, lipid profile, systemic inflammation, renin concentration, blood pressure, physical activity levels, and sitting time were secondary outcomes. Results: Glycated hemoglobin was reduced in all groups (P = .021), although changes were more marked in AERO (−0.36%) and COMBI (−0.44%) than in active control (−0.26%) group. Lipid profile was similarly modified in all groups. Diastolic blood pressure and renin concentration were also reduced in all groups; however, renin showed more marked reductions in AERO (−17.7 uIU/mL) and COMBI (−15.1 uIU/mL) than in active control (0.2 uIU/mL) group. Fasting insulin, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, systolic blood pressure, walking time, and sitting time on weekends were not modified. Conclusion: AERO and COMBI presented similar effect to improve glycemic control and some cardiometabolic risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes.