Background: Inflammation is an indicator of oxidative stress that may contribute to cardiovascular diseases in older people living with HIV (OPWH). Physical activity (PA) may reduce these biomarkers in OPWH, but little is known about the association of PA with inflammatory and cardiovascular biomarkers. We sought to examine the inflammatory and cardiovascular biomarker correlates of PA and sedentary behavior in OPWH. Methods: We included 101 OPWH with complete assessments of PA, sedentary behavior, and biomarker data to examine the association between the volume of PA and inflammatory and cardiovascular biomarkers. Results: In this cohort of OPWH (mean age 55.9 y), 68% were male and 83% were African American/Black. Among OPWH, greater volume of PA (ie, walking, moderate, vigorous, and/or total) was associated with lower systolic (P < .05) and diastolic blood pressure (P < .05), pulse pressure (P < .05), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (P < .05). Greater duration of sitting was associated with greater triglycerides, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (P < .05). Conclusions: Although adherence to regular PA among OPWH is low and sedentary behavior is high, the associations between biomarkers and PA suggest a greater volume of PA could attenuate the inflammatory and cardiovascular derangements experienced by OPWH.
Raymond Jones, Ene M. Enogela, Taylor L. Buchanan, Thomas W. Buford, David E. Vance, and Pariya L. Fazeli
Paul Andrew Estabrooks
Dissemination and implementation (D&I) science can be described as the scientific study of the strategies and mechanisms by which scientific evidence is disseminated and implemented in community or clinical settings to improve outcomes for a specified population. This paper provides an overview of D&I science as it relates to health and physical activity promotion. It provides definitions and specifications for D&I strategies and an overview of the types of theories, models, and frameworks used to advance this work. Finally, this review demonstrated the need for physical activity researchers to (a) test relationships between changes in D&I explanatory constructs and D&I outcomes; (b) determine the utility of D&I strategies, based on explanatory theories, to improve intervention reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance; (c) develop strategies to take interventions to scale and reduce disparities; and (d) develop interventions and D&I strategies, in collaboration with those who would ultimately be responsible for implementation.
Lindsay Nettlefold, Samantha M. Gray, Joanie Sims-Gould, and Heather A. McKay
Darla Castelli and Christine Julien
Physical activity is a health-protective factor that can reduce disease risk in later life. Designing interventions that increase physical activity participation are paramount but need to increase potency and reduce the time to effectiveness. This paper aims to outline one transdisciplinary, team science effort to increase behavioral intervention potency through the integration of the autonomous cognition model whereby data guide each decision in developing a school-based physical activity intervention. Examples of data collected by stage and a summary of potential action steps are provided.
Paul M. Wright
Physical activity programs in school and community settings have the potential to foster positive youth development related to social and emotional learning. However, research findings and best practices that promote these outcomes are often not implemented in practice. The field of implementation science can help researchers understand and navigate the barriers to implementing what we know from research into policy and practice (i.e., to bridge the know-do gap). In this paper, after describing positive youth development, social emotional learning, and their application in physical activity settings, I share reflections from my engaged scholarship with the teaching personal and social responsibility model to illustrate ways my collaborators and I have tried to address the know-do gap. Lessons learned about ways that kinesiology researchers can actively support the implementation of our research in society are discussed.
Ronald F. Zernicke and David H. Perrin
Rebecca E. Hasson, Lexie R. Beemer, Andria B. Eisman, and Penelope Friday
The adoption of classroom-based physical activity interventions in elementary schools is nearly universal (92%), but fewer than 22% of teachers who implement activity breaks achieve a dose of 10 min/day. Dissemination and implementation science frameworks provide a systematic approach to identifying and overcoming barriers likely to impede successful adoption and fidelity of evidence-based interventions. This review highlights the development and subsequent tailoring of a classroom-based physical activity intervention, Interrupting Prolonged sitting with ACTivity (InPACT), for delivery in low-resource schools using implementation science frameworks focused on equity. Unlike most classroom physical activity interventions, tailored InPACT includes a suite of implementation strategies (methods or techniques that support adoption, implementation, and sustainment of a program or practice) and, thus, has been designed for dissemination. These strategies were focused on increasing teacher self-efficacy and reducing multilevel implementation barriers in low-resource schools to promote intervention fidelity, effectiveness, and sustainment.
Yoke Leng Ng, Keith D. Hill, and Elissa Burton
Older adults with mild balance dysfunction can benefit from early intervention. This research explored the experiences of older adults with mild balance dysfunction participating in an 18-week supervised outdoors Seniors Exercise Park program and 6 weeks of unsupervised independent practice. Factors influencing attendance and independent practice were also explored. Semistructured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 24 participants (mean age = 77.4 years, SD = 5.4) and 22 participants (mean age = 77.5 years, SD = 5.6) after 18 and 24 weeks, respectively. The data were analyzed using reflexive thematic analysis. Many participants perceived improvements in health and responded positively to the supervised Seniors Exercise Park program. Factors supporting attendance included building social connections and positive instructor personality. Barriers to training included competing time demands and poor health. These insights suggest that a group-based Seniors Exercise Park supervised program was well accepted and can be an option to improve the health of older adults with mild balance dysfunction.
Karin A. Pfeiffer, Katherine L. McKee, Cailyn A. Van Camp, and Kimberly A. Clevenger
Given the multifaceted nature of physical activity behavior in children and adolescents, researchers have conducted myriad intervention studies designed to increase physical activity across many populations, study designs, contexts, and settings. This narrative review overviews the characteristics, conclusions, and research gaps/future directions indicated in prior reviews of interventions to promote physical activity in youth and identifies potential knowledge gaps. Seven databases were searched for articles published between January 2012 and September 2022. A predetermined list of characteristics of included reviews was extracted. Reviews (n = 68) concluded that interventions were generally effective. Little attention was paid to implementation, theoretical framework was only addressed in about half of reviews, and only a quarter specifically examined individuals from underrepresented groups. Family, community, and policy work are needed, and overarching reviews such as this study should occasionally occur given the high number of reviews focusing on specific populations or settings.
Kathleen A. Martin Ginis, Sarah V.C. Lawrason, and Haley A. Berrisford
The health and physical activity (PA) needs of people living with disabilities are underserved and understudied. This article provides an overview of research on PA and health research in people with disabilities. Research gaps and inequities are highlighted, along with their impact on advancing the fundamental rights of people with disabilities to fully participate in PA. The importance of translational PA research to disability communities is described. We provide case studies from two lines of PA and disability research that have been moved along the translational spectrum and into practice. The article concludes with three calls to action to kinesiology research and practitioners: (a) to include people with disabilities in research; (b) to advocate for adequate resources and support in alignment with equity, diversity, and inclusion efforts; and (c) to work in meaningful partnership with people with disabilities to support translational research programs that have real-world impacts.