This research uses social role theory to investigate gender differences in volunteers at the Special Olympics and interrelationships among motivations, commitment, and social capital. Volunteers at the 2014 National Summer Special Olympics in Germany were surveyed (n = 891). Multigroup structural equation modeling has revealed gender differences among motivations, commitment, and social capital. Volunteers primarily volunteered for personal growth. Further, motivations had a significant association with commitment and social capital. The impact of motivation on social capital was significantly mediated by commitment. Event organizers should market opportunities to volunteer by emphasizing opportunities for personal growth and appealing to specific values.
Kirstin Hallmann, Anita Zehrer, Sheranne Fairley, and Lea Rossi
Jacob K. Tingle, Callum Squires, and Randall Griffiths
This case follows four American college students from a small, Liberal Arts institution during a semester-long, faculty-led study abroad trip to London, England. The case presents the experiences of these students as they integrate into London society. Mainly viewed through the lens of sport, the students encounter many differences to their preconceived notion of how sports work, providing an obvious platform for discussion and comparison of how sport is organized in different parts of the world. Specifically, the case offers students the opportunity to learn about new sports they may not have encountered before, evaluate the U.S. system of sport management, and suggest ways to improve sports both at home and abroad. The international aspect of this case also provides an added cultural element by focusing on specific events in the United Kingdom sporting calendar that can be used to teach students about another country’s sporting identity.
Seungbum Lee, Yongjae Kim, and Tang Tang
To successfully evolve, organizations should change at the same pace as the environment changes. It is particularly important when adapting and utilizing new media technology is a huge part of an organization’s success. Presently, media professionals in all industries including intercollegiate athletics are experiencing a significant change in their work environment due to the ever-changing nature of new media technology. In particular, media convergence, an integration of production by combining both old (e.g., television) and new media (e.g., the Internet), has been one of the most influential phenomena creating unexpected changes and complex dynamics in the current media industry. Nonetheless, what have been previously overlooked in sport communication literature are challenges generated by media convergence, which affects the nature of sport communication. This case study provides a scenario based on semi-fictitious information so that students can critically examine the dynamic nature as well as the effect of media convergence facing sport communication in intercollegiate sport. Further, the students are provided with an opportunity to practice decision-making skills to address the challenges stemming from media convergence. By doing so, discussion regarding media convergence in the context of intercollegiate sport could be better presented to relevant classroom discussion.
James Strode, Melissa Davies, and Heather J. Lawrence
A great deal of sport management literature in recent years draws upon the need for effective quantitative and qualitative research methods. However, there are limited cases for a sport management faculty to effectively teach students proper process, design, and implementation of survey or interview research, particularly for real-world sport applications, such as student-athlete exit interviews. This case aims to fill this gap and outlines a plan for students to identify limitations in current student-athlete exit data collection methods and to learn the common barriers associated with effective research design. Students are made aware of common missteps throughout the research process and are provided foundations for effective survey and interview design. Information taught via this case can also be used across sport management contexts, such as fan experience surveys, retail customer satisfaction surveys, or donor satisfaction interviews.
Yannick Kluch and Amy S. Wilson
In an increasingly diverse sports industry, inclusive excellence becomes an important axiom to engage a variety of stakeholders. This case study outlines the development of the National Collegiate Athletic Association’s (NCAA) inaugural Diversity and Inclusion Social Media Campaign launched by the NCAA’s Minority Opportunities and Interest Committee in partnership with the national Student-Athlete Advisory Committees. The goals of this campaign were to provide the more than 500,000 student-athletes in the NCAA with a platform to create a dialogue on diversity and inclusion on their campuses as well as to communicate the benefit of inclusive environments to the student-athlete experience. By outlining the steps from the campaign idea to its implementation, this case study provides students with the ability to (a) understand a major sport organization’s planning process for a national social media campaign focused on diversity and inclusion, (b) analyze current diversity trends in the sports industry using the NCAA as an example, (c) trace the NCAA membership’s engagement with the campaign, and (d) determine to which extent a campaign such as this one can serve as a starting point for anchoring inclusive excellence in the fabric of intercollegiate athletics departments.
Gashaw Abeza, Mads Quist Boesen, Norm O’Reilly, and Jessica R. Braunstein-Minkove
The case presents a challenging decision that the new Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) President faced with the Qatar 2022 World Cup. Specifically, the issues surround the agreement that the President signed a year after his election with Qatar Airways and the allegations made against the 2022 World Cup host country, Qatar, for human rights violations and state-sponsored terrorism. Right after the allegation was made against Qatar, the President formed an advisory group to help prepare him to make a rational decision on the case. You have been appointed as the members of the advisory board that is tasked with investigating and making recommendations on the President’s challenge of keeping his campaign promises of restoring FIFA’s image and raising more money for the federation.
Lauren C. Hindman and Nefertiti A. Walker
Women remain the minority in sport organizations, particularly in leadership roles, and prior work has suggested that sexism may be to blame. This study examines women’s experiences of both overt and subtle sexism in the sport industry as well as the impact such experiences have on their careers. Based on interviews and journal entries from women managers working in a men’s professional sports league, the findings suggest that the culture of sport organizations perpetuates sexism, including the diminishment and objectification of women. Sexism occurs in women’s everyday interactions with their supervisors and coworkers, as well as others that they interact with as part of their jobs. Such experiences result in professional and emotional consequences, which women navigate by employing tactics that enable their survival in the sport industry.
Florian Hemme, Dominic G. Morais, and Jennifer Lukow
Co-founded by brothers Paul and Mike Rabil, the Premier Lacrosse League (PLL) debuted in the U.S. on June 1, 2019 as a professional lacrosse alternative to Major League Lacrosse (MLL). With limited funding available to the league, the Rabils relied heavily on social media tactics to promote their venture. The reader will be tasked to analyze the PLL’s marketing efforts and devise alternative and novel approaches for future years. All information provided in the case is publicly available and references to magazine, newspaper articles, and videos are provided at the end of the case. Names mentioned in the case are the names of real individuals.
Matthew Katz, Thomas A. Baker III, and Hui Du
In this brand community analysis, the authors utilized both the social identity approach and network theory to examine the multiple identities and patterns of interactions among members of an official soccer supporters club. Based on the Multiple In-Group Identity Framework and the brand community triad, the authors differentiated between team and supporter club identity to explore how each affects consumption behaviors. Furthermore, the authors explored the nature of fan relationships based on network principles of multiplexity and homophily as they relate to consumption and socializing ties among fan club members. They also explored the network structure of the brand community. Using both network theory and network methodologies, the authors examined how the multiple identities and many relationships within the brand community affect the consumption behaviors of fan club members. Theoretical and practical implications were considered as they relate to sport consumer behavior and sport marketing.