Over the past decade, institutions of higher education have been forced to become more innovative and entrepreneurial, seeking creative solutions to budget challenges. This has been particularly important within kinesiology programs, which represent one of the largest growing sectors of higher education over the past 10–15 years. In preparation for the 2016 American Kinesiology Association (AKA) Leadership Workshop, a survey was administered by the AKA to capture key institutional classifications (i.e., Carnegie classification, institutional size, public vs. private designation) and department chair or designated administrator perceptions on entrepreneurial issues relevant to their unit. Sixty-eight of 881 units surveyed responded, yielding a response rate of 7.7%. The majority of respondents (67%) indicated a unit funding model that was based on the previous year’s level (i.e., historical budget model). While the majority of respondents reported that their unit is provided with “adequate to plentiful” resources (59%), this varied widely based on institutional classification. Specifically, baccalaureate institutions (Chi-square 18.054, p < .001) and institutions with < 5,000 students (Chi-square 10.433, p & .015) had the least favorable perceptions of unit resource allocation. For the majority of entrepreneurial activities and partnerships (5 of 8 targeted questions), ≥ 50% of the respondents reported “no involvement.” There was a significant mismatch between actual vs. expected time spent by the department chair on fundraising activities (Chi-square 4.627, p = .031), with higher expectations than actual time spent on fundraising. In summary, the AKA survey suggests that there is tremendous heterogeneity in perceptions of and participation in entrepreneurial activities within kinesiology, and that there remains strategic areas of opportunity within the field.
Jason R. Carter, Penny McCullagh, and Rick Kreider
Scott E. Gordon, John B. Bartholomew, Richard B. Kreider, Ronald F. Zernicke, and Mary E. Rudisill
This is an era in which academic units in higher education are expected to do more with less. State- and institutionally-appropriated funding streams are generally decreasing or stagnant. Federal grant funding is at its lowest level in years, and unlikely to rebound anytime soon. Institutions are restricting tuition increases to allow greater accessibility to students of limited means as well as to heed public demand for more accountability in the “educational product”. Enrollment growth adds pressure to academic units but rarely results in immediate resources directed to the affected units. To compound this problem, kinesiology is one of the fastest growing majors nationwide. With such mounting pressures on academic units and their leaders, creative entrepreneurial resourcefulness is not only rewarded, but required. This paper presents a series of successful and practical resource-generating strategies from the unique perspectives of units at several different institutions.
Katherine Thomas Thomas
External funding increases as the number of quality proposals submitted increases; increasing the number of faculty submitting proposals is a logical step to increase external funding. Reflecting on a physical educator’s > $1.5 million grant portfolio, two main themes emerge: the role of the PI and the unit administrator. Realizing increases in external funding is in part a result of administrators empowering faculty for success, and five administrator strategies have been identified. These strategies include: (1) value all sources of external funding (e.g., teaching, research, outreach, federal, foundation), (2) reward the process and the outcomes (a good proposal is equal to a data-based paper), (3) facilitate connections for collaboration (e.g., spread the word about your faculty), (4) provide infrastructure (from labs to personnel evaluation), (5) identify and develop potential. Important strategies for PIs include: (1) write proposals, (2) take risks, (3) answer the phone, (4) details matter, and (5) seek collaborators.
Michael S. Willett, Damon P.S. Andrew, and Mary E. Rudisill
Market pressures and external demands to sustain access, improve cost management and accountability, and increase productivity continue to persist in departments and schools of kinesiology. Confidence in the sustainability of an institution’s business model is eroding. To address these challenges, one possible approach for enhancing institutional performance, accountability, and stability is to revise an institution’s management process or budgeting model. Indicators suggest that many institutions are changing budget models to an incentive-based budgeting (IBB) system (i.e., responsibility-centered management [RCM]). The management strategies reviewed in this article are important for higher education budget administrators that implement, or are considering implementing, an IBB system as a means for assessing outcomes or institutional decision-making.
Sheri J. Brock, Danielle Wadsworth, Nikki Hollett, and Mary E. Rudisill
The School of Kinesiology at Auburn University is using Movband Technology to support online learning in their physical activity program. Active Auburn is a 2-hr credit course that encourages students (n = 2,000/year) to become physically active through online instruction and tracking physical activity using Movband technology. Movband technology allows for uploading and monitoring group physical activity data. The implementation of this technology has allowed the School of Kinesiology to: (a) promote physical activity on our campus, (b) serve a large number of students, (c) reduce demand on classroom/physical activity space, and (d) promote our research and outreach scholarship as well, by collecting physical activity profiles for students enrolled in the course. Students report they enjoy the course and that they appreciate the “freedom to exercise” when it best fits into their schedule. This course generates considerable revenue to support course instruction and much more for the School of Kinesiology.
Jennifer Robertson-Wilson, Nicole Reinders, and Pamela J. Bryden
Given the potential for dance to serve as a way to engage in physical activity, this review was undertaken to examine the use and effectiveness of physical activity interventions using dance among children and adolescents.Five databases were examined for dance-related physical activity interventions published between 2009–2016 fitting the inclusion criteria. Studies meeting the inclusion criteria were then evaluated for studyquality against the Effective Public Health Practice Project assessment tool (Thomas, Ciliska, Dobbins, & Micucci. 2004) and key study information was extracted. Thirteen papers detailing 11 interventions wereobtained. Intervention study quality was rated as weak (based on scoring) for all studies. Multiple forms of dance were used, including exergaming approaches. Four interventions yielded increases in physical activity(reported in six articles), four interventions were inconclusive, and three interventions produced nonstatistically significant findings. Further research is required in this area to determine the effects of dance interventionson physical activity among youth.
Mary E. Rudisill
For 30 years I have been interested in achievement motivation and factors that influence children’s motivation to move and learn to move. This work has been grounded in achievement goal theory, which explains what motivates individuals by how success is perceived and competence is valued (Nicholls, 1989). According to this theory, behavioral outcomes are related to goal-oriented behaviors described as task (e.g., competence and success are self-referenced) or ego (e.g., competence and success are based on the reference of others). A task-oriented goal perspective has been associated with increased enjoyment and intrinsic motivation inmovement-related activities such as sport and physical activity. Achievement goal theory also proposes that environments can be structured to emphasize factors that determine one’s goal involvement and subsequent cognitions, affect, and behaviors. In this review, I discuss mastery motivational climates and the research we have conducted related to this topic over the years.
James D. Wyant and Kristi N. Wyant
In recent years, the physical education (PE) profession has been forced to confront a plethora of issues, from the demise of teacher education programs to the loss of programming in the K–12 context. Calls for change and a time of introspection have been prompted by this climate. The impetus for change has long been a staple of PE discourse. Occupational socialization theory, which describes the forces that shape the decisions and behaviors of physical education teachers, offers insight on the change narrative. Emerging from the results of occupational socialization research are myriad negative issues that highlight a perplexing problem—some PE teachers have the propensity to make irrational decisions. The purpose of this article is to apply decision theory as a means to critically examine issues that have emerged from the negative socialization cycle of PE teachers. Beyond connecting theories, suggestions will be provided to improve the decision-making of PE professionals.
Ronnie Lidor, Gershon Tenenbaum, Gal Ziv, and Vladimir Issurin
Deliberate practice (DP), an activity aimed at enhancing an individual’s performance, has been reported to be crucial for achieving a state of expertise in various domains, such as education, music, and sport. In this article, the relationships between DP and the process of athletic performance adaptation are explored by elaborating on the main principle of the theory of training—periodization. We argue that periodization should be considered as a mechanism for ensuring DP, and that the implementation of periodization principles (cycles and phases) in DP activities can facilitate adaptation processes leading to expert performance. We describe the characteristics and features of DP, review a series of studies on DP and athletic performance (N = 21), discuss the importance of periodization in sport training, and outline a number of benefits of periodization. A model that emphasizes the link between periodization and DP activities in each phase of sport development is proposed, and a number of research approaches to address periodization are discussed.
Beverly D. Ulrich and Deborah L. Feltz
In this article we present the results of the 2015 review and ranking of U.S. doctoral programs in kinesiology conducted by the National Academy of Kinesiology (NAK) and based on data for the calendar years 2010 through 2014. This is the third consecutive five-year review and represents the only continuous effort to create rankings for the field of kinesiology today. As in previous reviews, this evaluation was built, using objective measures, on a norm-referenced survey of kinesiology doctoral programs in the United States. Of the 77 programs invited to participate, 52 provided complete sets of the required data. The raw data comprised 9 faculty indices contributing 66% of the total score, and 7 doctoral student indices, which made up the remaining 34%. Raw data for individual indices were converted to normative values by first transforming them into z-scores and then converting the z-scores into T-scores, to which weightings were applied. From the total T-scores, two sets of rankings were determined: unadjusted and adjusted to number of faculty members in each program. Rankings based on total T-scores are presented as well as T-scores for individual indices for each program. We also share raw data means and standard deviations for individual variables, organized into subgroups based on total T-scores. Finally, we compare the outcomes of this review with the previous review conducted by the NAK.