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Elizabeth A. Holbrook, Minsoo Kang, and Don W. Morgan

As a first step toward the development of adapted physical activity (PA) programs for adults with visual impairment (VI), the purpose of this study was to determine the time frame needed to reliably estimate weekly PA in adults with VI. Thirty-three adults with VI completed 7 days of pedometer-based PA assessment. Generalizability theory analyses were conducted to quantify sources of variance within the PA estimate and determine the appropriate number of days of PA monitoring needed for the total sample and for participants with mild-to-moderate and severe VI. A single-facet, crossed design was employed including participants and days. Participants and days correspondingly accounted for 33–55% and 0–3% of the total variance in PA. While a reliable account of PA was obtained for the total sample over a 6-day period, shorter (4-day) and longer (9-day) periods were required for persons with mild-to-moderate and severe VI, respectively.

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Luis Columna, Kevin M. Casebolt, ZáNean McClain, Phil Esposito, and Aaron Moffett

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Inês Marques-Aleixo, Ana Querido, Pedro Figueiredo, João Paulo Vilas-Boas, Rui Corredeira, Daniel Daly, and Ricardo J. Fernandes

This study examined the differences in intracycle velocity variation and arm coordination in front crawl in swimmers with Down syndrome in three breathing conditions. International swimmers with Down syndrome (N = 16) performed 3 × 20 m front crawl at 50 m race speed: without breathing, breathing to the preferred side, and breathing to the nonpreferred side. A two dimensional video movement analysis was performed using the APASystem. Breathing conditions were compared using Repeated Measures ANOVA. Swimming velocity was higher without breathing and intracyclic velocity variation was higher while breathing. Swimmers tended to a catch up arm coordination mode for both breathing conditions and a superposition mode when not breathing. These data reflect arm coordination compromising swimming performance, particularly when comparing with non disabled swimmers in literature. The physical and perhaps cognitive impairment associated with Down syndrome may result in a disadvantage in both propulsion and drag, more evident when breathing.

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Alicia Dixon-Ibarra, Miyoung Lee, and Anisia Dugala

The purpose of this study was to examine the physical activity patterns of older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) in comparison with younger adults with ID and older adults without ID. A sample of 109 participants was included in the study. Sophisticated data reduction, time stamped technology, and multiple objective measures (i.e., pedometers and accelerometers) were used to determine physical activity intensities and walking patterns of participants. Results indicate that older adults with ID are performing less physical activity than comparison groups. A small proportion of older adults with ID (6%) met national physical activity recommendations of 150 min of moderate or 75 min of vigorous physical activity in bouts greater than ten minutes across the week (USDHHS, 2008). Sedentary behavior was also an observable factor in this study. These findings demonstrate the need for health promotion efforts for adults with ID across the lifespan.

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Megan Self, Simon Driver, Laurel Stevens, and Ann Marie Warren

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant public health issue due to the incidence, complexity, and cost associated with treatment. The purpose of this study was to determine physical activity (PA) knowledge, attitudes, intentions, and barriers among individuals with a TBI undergoing outpatient rehabilitation. Seventeen participants completed a series of group interviews regarding their PA needs. A qualitative research design was adopted and trustworthiness was established through investigator triangulation of data. A cross-case analysis was completed to identify themes and conceptual patterns. The main themes identified were (a) an inability to differentiate between PA and physical therapy, (b) a limited knowledge of PA health benefits and the relationship to rehabilitation, and (c) an interest in participating in a PA based health promotion program. Future interventions should educate individuals about PA, the associated health benefits, and the role PA plays in the rehabilitation process.