The evidence-based practice (EBP) movement has been extremely influential over the last 20 years. Fields like medicine, physiotherapy, occupational therapy, nursing, psychology, and education have adopted the idea that policy makers and practitioners should use interventions that have demonstrated efficiency and effectiveness. This apparently straightforward idea is beginning to affect adapted physical activity; however, researchers and practitioners in our field often appear to be unaware of fundamental questions related to them. The major purpose of this paper is to outline and discuss 10 of these fundamental questions. This analysis leads us to conclude that EBP is a good direction to pursue in adapted physical activity if we develop a type of EBP congruent with the main tenets of our field.
Marcel Bouffard and Greg Reid
Fiona J. Moola, Guy E.J. Faulkner, and Jane E. Schneiderman
Although physical activity may reduce lung function decline in youth with cystic fibrosis (CF), most patients are inactive. Little is known about why youth with CF are inactive or how to facilitate physical activity. This study explored perceptions toward physical activity in 14 youth with CF at a Canadian Hospital. Qualitative interviews were conducted and a grounded theory analysis was undertaken. The participants demonstrated positive or negative perceptions toward physical activity and different experiences—such as parental support and illness narratives—influenced youths’ perceptions. In addition, the participants experienced physical activity within the context of reduced time. Recommendations for developing physical activity interventions, including the particular need to ensure that such interventions are not perceived as wasteful of time, are provided.
Iva Obrusnikova and Dannielle L. Miccinello
The study assessed parental perceptions of the benefits of physical activity (PA) and the factors that influence participation of children with autism spectrum disorders in PA after school. Data were collected from 103 parents using an online open-ended questionnaire and focus-group interviews. Data were analyzed using a socioecological model. Parents provided 225 responses that were coded as advantages, 106 as disadvantages, 225 as facilitators, and 250 as barriers of PA. The most frequently reported advantages were physical, followed by psychosocial, and cognitive. Disadvantages were psychosocial and physical. The most frequently reported barriers were intrapersonal, followed by interpersonal, physical, community, and institutional. Facilitators were intrapersonal, followed by physical, interpersonal, community, and institutional. Public policy factors were elicited in the interviews.
Linda Pannekoek, Daniela Rigoli, Jan P. Piek, Nicholas C. Barrett, and Marina Schoemaker
The parent-rated Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ) has been revised to incorporate a wider age range, including adolescence. In this exploratory study, internal consistency and validity of the DCDQ-2007 was assessed using a community-based sample of 87 adolescents. Psychometric properties of the DCDQ-2007 were investigated and concurrent validity, sensitivity, and specificity were assessed with the MABC-2 as a criterion standard. The results demonstrated high internal consistency for the DCDQ-2007 and a relationship with the MABC-2 was found. The DCDQ-2007 met the recommended standard for sensitivity, although the confidence interval was large; however, it failed to meet the recommended standard for specificity. This has important implications concerning the suitability of the DCDQ-2007. Although promising psychometric properties were found within the current study, the applicability of the DCDQ-2007 as a screening measure for motor difficulties requires careful consideration.
Scott A. Conger and David R. Bassett Jr.
The purpose of this study was to develop a compendium of wheelchair-related physical activities. To accomplish this, we conducted a systematic review of the published energy costs of activities performed by individuals who use wheelchairs. A total of 266 studies were identified by a literature search using relevant keywords. Inclusion criteria were studies utilizing individuals who routinely use a manual wheelchair, indirect calorimetry as the criterion measurement, energy expenditure expressed as METs or VO2, and physical activities typical of wheelchair users. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. A total of 63 different wheelchair activities were identified with energy expenditure values ranging from 0.8 to 12.5 kcal·kg-1·hr-1. The energy requirements for some activities differed between individuals who use wheelchairs and those who do not. The compendium of wheelchair-related activities can be used to enhance scoring of physical activity surveys and to promote the benefits of activity in this population.
Casebolt, K.M., Iva Obrusnikova, ZáNean McClain, Luis Columna, Phil Esposito, and Aaron Moffett
Edited by Daniel W. Tindall
Casey M. Breslin and Mary E. Rudisill
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of visual supports on the performance of the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2) for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants (N = 22) performed the TGMD-2 under three different protocols (traditional protocol, picture task card protocol, and picture activity schedule protocol). Gross motor quotient scores on the TGMD-2 were measured and statistically analyzed using a within-subjects repeated-measures ANOVA. Results indicated statistically significant differences between protocols, while post hoc tests indicated that the picture task card condition produced significantly higher gross motor quotient scores than the traditional protocol and the picture activity schedule. The results suggest that more accurate gross motor quotient scores on the TGMD-2 by children with ASD can be elicited using the picture task card protocol.
Amanda Faith Casey and Claudia Emes
Reduced respiratory muscle strength in individuals with Down syndrome (DS) may affect speech respiratory variables such as maximum phonation duration (MPD), initiation volume, and expired mean airflow. Researchers randomly assigned adolescents with DS (N = 28) to either 12 weeks of swim training (DS-ST) or a control group (DS-NT). Repeated measures MANOVA demonstrated a significant increase in MPD for DS-ST participants from pretest to posttest, t(11) = –3.44, p = 0.006, that was not maintained at follow-up, t(11) = 6.680, p < .001. No significant change was observed for DS-NT participants across time, F(2, 11) = 4.20, p = 0.044. The lack of long-term change in DS-ST participants may be related to the relatively short training period.