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“Don’t Just Speak About It, Be About It”: Rebecca Busanich in Conversation With Shannon Baird on Choosing the Principled Path as a Practitioner

Rebecca Busanich and Shannon Baird

Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology (CSSEP) is committed to showcasing the stories and experiences of practitioners and researchers in sport and exercise psychology, recognizing their importance and contribution to growth and development in our field. In line with this mission, several CSSEP Editorial Board members sought to interview practitioners in the field as a way to highlight their stories and experiences. Dr. Shannon Baird’s story demonstrates the importance of theory-driven knowledge in applied work, the power of passion and self-drive in forging a new path forward, and the relentless pursuit of a principled and purposeful career. In conversation with Dr. Rebecca Busanich, Dr. Baird describes her journey through mental performance consulting in the military and U.S. Special Forces.

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Fourier Analysis of the Vertical Ground Reaction Force During Walking: Applications for Quantifying Differences in Gait Strategies

Taylor P. Trentadue and Daniel Schmitt

Time series biomechanical data inform our understanding of normal gait mechanics and pathomechanics. This study examines the utility of different quantitative methods to distinguish vertical ground reaction forces (VGRFs) from experimentally distinct gait strategies. The goals of this study are to compare measures of VGRF data—using the shape factor method and a Fourier series-based analysis—to (1) describe how these methods reflect and distinguish gait patterns and (2) determine which Fourier series coefficients discriminate normal walking, with a relatively stiff-legged gait, from compliant walking, using deep knee flexion and limited vertical oscillation. This study includes a reanalysis of previously presented VGRF data. We applied the shape factor method and fit 3- to 8-term Fourier series to zero-padded VGRF data. We compared VGRF renderings using Euclidean L2 distances and correlations stratified by gait strategy. Euclidean L2 distances improved with additional harmonics, with limited improvement after the seventh term. Euclidean L2 distances were greater in shape factor versus Fourier series renderings. In the 8 harmonic model, amplitudes of 9 Fourier coefficients—which contribute to VGRF features including peak and local minimum amplitudes and limb loading rates—were different between normal and compliant walking. The results suggest that Fourier series-based methods distinguish between gait strategies.

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Leadership Theory and Ownership Succession in the National Football League: The Case of the Cincinnati Bengals

Daryl R. Smith and Kimberly A. Hasselfeld

The fans in Cincinnati are in an uproar. They have just witnessed another disappointing football season, the 23rd since Mike Brown became the owner of the team. Mike Brown’s tenure has been marked by historically poor performance with eight and nine straight game losing streaks to begin the season on multiple occasions. To make matters worse, this was the same number of seasons that his father and Hall of Famer, Paul Brown, owned the team. Where Paul Brown’s tenure had been marked by record ascendence to the playoffs and two Super Bowl trips, his son’s tenure was notable primarily for seasonal failure. In the minds of the fans and press, the two eras of ownership could not be more starkly different. Both are now calling for wholesale changes to the leadership or the sale of the team. Students should examine these claims and both eras of ownership using transformational and charismatic leadership theories, Collins’ Genius with a Thousand Helpers leadership model, and family-owned business succession perspectives. Do the fans and press have a right to be angry and demand a change in leadership?

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Managing Challenging Situations in the Coach–Athlete Dyad: Introducing the Grey Zone Model From the Coach Perspective

Katelynn Slade, Sophia Jowett, and Daniel Rhind

Challenging situations and interactions are necessary and unavoidable in sport. From deselection to injury, burnout, and mental health issues, coaches and athletes will face challenging situations throughout their sporting career. The aims of this research study were to (a) introduce a conceptual model of challenging situations and subsequently to (b) explore a range of challenging situations that occur in high-performance sport, and (c) discover how such challenging situations are managed and perceived by high-performance coaches. In this study, challenging situations in coach–athlete dyads are defined as organisational, performance, interpersonal, and personal stressors that can push or pull one or both the coach and athlete, and subsequently their relationship into a state of indeterminacy (i.e., the Grey Zone) that may cause stress, strain, conflict, or resolution and understanding depending on how the challenging situations are managed. A total of 11 current high-performance and World Class Performance coaches (M = 41.64 years old, SD = 10.69 years; female = 4, male = 7), took part in a semistructured interview aided by vignettes to explore and discover the process by which coaches deal with challenging situations. Using a pragmatism approach, a content analysis guided by the conceptual Grey Zone Model was utilised to analyse the obtained qualitative data. Results indicated that coaches regularly experience challenging situations and use a variety of techniques to manage them. The Grey Zone Model is proposed as a practical tool to help coaches, athletes, and other practitioners, such as sport psychology consultants and coach developers to analyse the various phases of challenging situations.

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Multi-Ingredient Preworkout Supplementation Compared With Caffeine and a Placebo Does Not Improve Repetitions to Failure in Resistance-Trained Women

Mariah Snyder, Christi Brewer, and Katrina Taylor

There has been an increase in the use of commercially available multi-ingredient preworkout supplements (MIPS); however, there are inconsistencies regarding the efficacy of MIPS in resistance-trained women. Purpose: To determine the effect of varying doses of MIPS compared with caffeine only (C) and a placebo (PL) on resistance-training performance in trained women. Methods: Ten women (21.5 [2.3] y) completed 1-repetition-maximum tests at baseline for leg press and bench press. A within-group, double-blind, and randomized design was used to assign supplement drinks (ie, PL, C, MIPS half scoop [MIPS-H], and MIPS full scoop [MIPS-F]). Repetitions to failure were assessed at 75% and 80% to 85% of 1-repetition maximum for bench and leg press, respectively. Total performance volume was calculated as load × sets × repetitions for each session. Data were analyzed using a 1-way repeated-measures analysis of variance and reported as means and SDs. Results: There were no differences in repetitions to failure for bench press (PL: 14.4 [3.2] repetitions, C: 14.4 [2.9] repetitions, MIPS-H: 14.2 [2.6] repetitions, MIPS-F: 15.1 [3.1] repetitions; P = .54) or leg press (PL: 13.9 [7.8] repetitions, C: 10.8 [5.9] repetitions, MIPS-H: 13.1 [7.1] repetitions, MIPS-F: 12.4 [10.7] repetitions; P = .44). Furthermore, there were no differences in total performance volume across supplements for bench press (PL: 911.2 [212.8] kg, C: 910.7 [205.5] kg, MIPS-H: 913.6 [249.3] kg, MIPS-F: 951.6 [289.6] kg; P = .39) or leg press (PL: 4318.4 [1633.6] kg, C: 3730.0 [1032.5] kg, MIPS-H: 4223.0 [1630.0] kg, MIPS-F: 4085.5 [2098.3] kg; P = .34). Conclusions: Overall, our findings suggest that caffeine and MIPS do not provide ergogenic benefits for resistance-trained women in delaying muscular failure.

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Soccer’s Neoliberal Pitch: The Sport’s Power, Profit, and Discursive Politics

Luke Mashburn

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Ten Years Gone

Patrick O. McKeon and Jennifer M. Medina McKeon

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Erratum. Perceived Constraints to Pickleball Participation Among Black Older Adults

Journal of Aging and Physical Activity

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Impact of Secondary Organizational Socialization on North American, Asian, and European Early Career Faculty Members’ Delivery of Physical Education Teacher Education

Meghan Dennis, Seungsoo Baek, Adam M. Wolecki, Wonhee Lee, Natalia D. Molska, R. Tanner Ryan, and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith

Purpose: To describe the impact of secondary organizational socialization on 10 early career faculty members’ (FMs) delivery of physical education teacher education (PETE). Method: The FMs worked in universities situated on three different continents. Data were collected with four qualitative techniques (formal interviews, written ideal PETE program, document analysis, and prerecorded film) and analyzed by using analytic induction and constant comparison. Findings: FMs delivered PETE that was a hybrid of the behavioristic, traditional/craft, critical-inquiry, and personalistic orientations to teacher education. The cultures and conditions in which FMs worked were mainly positive and favorable and aided them in delivering PETE. FMs coped with negative cultural elements and unfavorable conditions that constrained them through strategic compliance, strategic redefinition, or finding a new position. Conclusion: Findings were similar across continents and should help with efforts to improve the transition of neophyte FMs into the workplace.

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Perspectives on Inclusion in Physical Education From Faculty and Students at Three Physical Education Teacher Education Programs in Chile

Fabián Arroyo-Rojas and Samuel R. Hodge

Discourse about, and the preparation of teachers regarding, the inclusion of all students has been lacking in Latin America broadly, including Chile. The purpose of this study was to examine the perspectives of physical education teacher education (PETE) faculty members and undergraduate students on inclusion and social justice in Chile. Grounded in social constructionism, the research design of this qualitative inquiry was descriptive multiple case study. The 16 participants were PETE faculty—that is, two assistant professors and one adjunct faculty member (n = 3) and three heads of programs (n = 3)—as well as undergraduate students (n = 10) across three PETE programs in Chile. The primary data sources were 12 individual semistructured interviews with heads of the program and faculty and three focus group interviews with undergraduate students across programs. The qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis to draw on different themes capturing the perspectives on inclusion and social justice within the Chilean physical education curriculum. Findings were presented through themes and subthemes across PETE programs. Three major discussion themes are presented: (a) disability framed within a deficit model, (b) inclusion as an adapted pedagogical practice, and (c) inclusion as a rights-based model for equality of opportunities. We conclude, analytically, that a lack of critical critique of the deficit model of disability, adapted pedagogical practices alone, and sameness manifests forms of marginalization to students with disabilities in physical education.