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Xin Yao Lin and Margie E. Lachman

Only a small percentage of adults engage in regular physical activity, even though it is widely recommended as beneficial for well-being. Thus, it is essential to identify factors that can promote increased physical activity among adults of all ages. The current study examined the relationship of social media use to physical activity and emotional well-being. The sample is from the Midlife in the United States Refresher daily diary study, which includes 782 adults ages 25–75 years. Results showed that those who used social media less often engaged in more frequent physical activity, which, in turn, led to more positive affect. This relationship was found for midlife and older adults but not younger adults. The findings show the benefits of physical activity for well-being and suggest that social media use may dampen efforts to increase physical activity, especially among middle-aged and older adults.

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Emily T. Green, Narelle S. Cox, and Anne E. Holland

This study aimed to assess the feasibility of delivering a brief physical activity (PA) intervention to community rehabilitation clients. Participants were randomized to receive one session of stage-of-change-based PA education and counseling in addition to written educational material, or education material alone. Outcomes were measured at baseline and 3 months; the primary outcome was feasibility, measured by the percentage of those who were eligible, consented, randomized, and followed-up. A total of 123 individuals were both eligible and interested in participating, 32% of those screened on admission to the program. Forty participants consented, and 35 were randomized, with mean age 72 years (SD = 12.2). At baseline, 66% had recently commenced or intended to begin regular PA in the next 6 months. A total of 30 participants were followed-up. It is feasible to deliver education and counseling designed to support the long-term adoption of regular PA to community rehabilitation clients. Further refinement of the protocol is warranted (ACTRN12617000519358).

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Marcel Lemire, Romain Remetter, Thomas J. Hureau, Bernard Geny, Evelyne Lonsdorfer, Fabrice Favret, and Stéphane P. Dufour

Purpose: This study aimed to determine the contribution of metabolic, cardiopulmonary, neuromuscular, and biomechanical factors to the energy cost (ECR) of graded running in well-trained runners. Methods: Eight men who were well-trained trail runners (age: 29 [10] y, mean [SD]; maximum oxygen consumption: 68.0 [6.4] mL·min−1·kg−1) completed maximal isometric evaluations of lower limb extensor muscles and 3 randomized trials on a treadmill to determine their metabolic and cardiovascular responses and running gait kinematics during downhill (DR: −15% slope), level (0%), and uphill running (UR: 15%) performed at similar O2 uptake (approximately 60% maximum oxygen consumption). Results: Despite similar O2 demand, ECR was lower in DR versus level running versus UR (2.5 [0.2] vs 3.6 [0.2] vs 7.9 [0.5] J·kg−1·m−1, respectively; all P < .001). Energy cost of running was correlated between DR and level running conditions only (r 2 = .63; P = .018). Importantly, while ECR was correlated with heart rate, cardiac output, and arteriovenous O2 difference in UR (all r 2 > .50; P < .05), ECR was correlated with lower limb vertical stiffness, ground contact time, stride length, and step frequency in DR (all r 2 > .58; P < .05). Lower limb isometric extension torques were not related to ECR whatever the slope. Conclusion: The determining physiological factors of ECR might be slope specific, mainly metabolic and cardiovascular in UR versus mainly neuromuscular and mechanical in DR. This possible slope specificity of ECR during incline running opens the way for the implementation of differentiated physiological evaluations and training strategies to optimize performance in well-trained trail runners.

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Francisco J. Llorente-Cantarero, Francisco J. Aguilar-Gómez, Gloria Bueno-Lozano, Augusto Anguita-Ruiz, Azahara I. Rupérez, Rocío Vázquez-Cobela, Katherine Flores-Rojas, Concepción M. Aguilera, Luis A. Moreno, Ángel Gil, Rosaura Leis, and Mercedes Gil-Campos

Childhood obesity has been related to metabolic syndrome and low-grade chronic inflammation. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of physical activity intensities and practice on inflammation, endothelial damage, and cardiometabolic risk factors in children. There were 513 participants, aged 6–14 years, recruited for the study. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry, and the children were classified into four groups according to quartiles of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) practice as very low active, low active, moderate active, and high active. Anthropometric measures, blood pressure, and plasma metabolic and proinflammatory parameters were analyzed. Very low active group presented a worse lipid profile and higher insulin, leptin, adiponectin, resistin, matrix metallopeptidase-9, and tissue plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, while lower levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, Type 1 macrophages, and interleukin 8 than high-active children. Regression analyses showed that a higher MVPA practice was associated with lower levels of triacylglycerols (β: −0.118; p = .008), resistin (β: −0.151; p = .005), tPAI (β: −0.105; p = .046), and P-selectin (β: −0.160; p = .006), independently of sex, age, and body mass index (BMI). In contrast, a higher BMI was associated with higher levels of insulin (β: 0.370; p < .001), Homeostasis Model Assessment (β: 0.352; p < .001), triacylglycerols (β: 0.209; p < .001), leptin (β: 0.654; p < .001), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (β: 0.182; p < .001), Type 1macrophages (β: 0.181; p < .001), and tissue plasminogen activator inhibitor (β: 0.240; p < .001), independently of sex, age, and MVPA. A better anthropometric, metabolic, and inflammatory profile was detected in the most active children; however, these differences were partly due to BMI. These results suggest that a higher MVPA practice and a lower BMI in children may lead to a better cardiometabolic status.