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Kim Gammage, Rachel Arnold, Lori Dithurbide, Alison Ede, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin and Kathleen Wilson

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Connie L. Tompkins, Erin K. Shoulberg, Lori E. Meyer, Caroline P. Martin, Marissa Dennis, Allison Krasner and Betsy Hoza

Background: According to the US Institute of Medicine guideline, preschool-aged children should participate in ≥15 minutes of physical activity (PA) per hour or 3 hours per day over 12 hours. Examinations of PA guideline compliance to date averaged time spent in PA over several days; however, children could exceed the guideline on some days and not on others. Therefore, this cross-sectional study examined PA guideline compliance in preschool children based on number of minutes per hour (average method) and percentage of days the guideline was met (everyday method). Methods: PA was measured by accelerometry during the preschool day for up to 10 days in 177 children (59.3% males, M age = 4.23). Minutes per hour and percentage of time in light, moderate to vigorous, and total PAs were calculated. Percentage of days in compliance was determined by number of days in compliance (defined as the child active on average ≥15 min/h) divided by total accelerometer days. Results: Children engaged in PA, on average, 17.01 minutes per hour, suggesting that on average, children are meeting the guideline. However, children were only in compliance with the PA guideline 62.41% of assessment days. Conclusions: Findings demonstrate the importance of examining compliance with both the average and everyday methods to more accurately portray level of Institute of Medicine PA guideline compliance.

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Adelle Gadowski, Alice J. Owen, Andrea Curtis, Natalie Nanayakkara, Stephane Heritier, Marie Misso and Sophia Zoungas

This review examines the effects of statins on physical activity and/or fitness, as statins can have adverse muscle effects. A search was done of MEDLINE, Embase, and EBMR databases up to July 2018 for randomized controlled trials comparing statin with placebo or control, measuring physical activity and/or fitness in adults. Sixteen randomized controlled trials (total participants [N] = 2,944) were included, 6 randomized controlled trials contributed data for meta-analysis. Random effects meta-analysis examined differences in physical fitness, maximal exercise time (in seconds) in exercise testing, and maximal heart rate (in beats per minute) between statins and control. No significant difference between statin and control for maximal heart rate (mean difference = 2.8 beats per minute, 95% confidence interval [−7.4, 13.0]; p = .59) nor exercise time (mean difference = 82.8 s, 95% confidence interval [−31.9, 197.4]; p = .516) were seen. There were insufficient studies reporting habitual physical activity to perform a meta-analysis. This review found no evidence for an effect of statins on physical activity or fitness, but data availability is limited.

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Guohua Zheng, Xin Zheng, Junzhe Li, Tingjin Duan, Kun Ling, Jing Tao and Lidian Chen

This study investigated the effects of Tai Chi compared with no exercise control on the cerebral hemodynamic parameters and other health-related factors in community older adults at risk of ischemic stroke. A total of 170 eligible participants were randomly allocated to Tai Chi or control group. The cerebral hemodynamic parameters and physical fitness risk factors of cardiovascular disease were measured at baseline, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks. After the 12-week intervention, Tai Chi significantly improved the minimum of blood flow velocity (BFVmin); BFVmean; pulsatility index and resistance index of the right anterior cerebral artery; and BFVmax, BFVmin, and BFVmean parameters of the right middle cerebral artery. Tai Chi training also decreased triglyceride, fasting blood glucose, and homocysteine levels, and improved balance ability. Therefore, the supervised 12-week Tai Chi exercise had potential beneficial effects on cerebral hemodynamics, plasma risk factors, and balance ability in older community adults at risk of ischemic stroke.

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Lena Hübner, Solveig Vieluf, Ben Godde and Claudia Voelcker-Rehage

It remains controversial whether aging influences motor learning and whether physiological factors, such as local strength or fitness, are associated with fine motor performance and learning in older adults (OA). OA (n = 51) and young adults (YA, n = 31) performed a short-term motor learning session using a precision grip force modulation task. The rate of improvement of OA compared with YA was steeper with respect to performance variability and temporal precision. Both age groups showed positive transfer during an unpracticed variant of the force modulation task. Local muscle strength (pinch and grip strength) and high cardiovascular fitness positively predicted fine motor performance, whereas initial performance, muscle strength, and motor fitness (heterogeneous motor test battery) negatively predicted rate of improvement. Analyses indicated potentials, but also limits of plasticity for OA.

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Juliana Souza de Oliveira, Catherine Sherrington, Louise Rowling and Anne Tiedemann

To document the characteristics of participants aged 50 years and older in a local government group exercise program (Strong Seniors), to investigate the motivators and barriers to ongoing exercise, and to identify factors associated with more frequent exercise class attendance. Ninety-three participants completed a survey about exercise class attendance, motivators and barriers to participation, and exercise perceptions and self-reported exercise. The authors conducted a mixed-methods study involving both quantitative and qualitative analyses. Personal benefits of exercise and social influences were the most common motivators for regular exercise. Barriers to participation included health problems and lack of time (competing priorities). A higher score on the perceived exercise benefits scale is the only factor associated with a higher frequency of attendance at Strong Seniors classes. Exercise programs for people aged 50 years and older that emphasize associated health benefits and promote social support may be more likely to facilitate long-term attendance.

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Angela Maria Hoyos-Quintero and Herney Andrés García-Perdomo

Objective: To evaluate the relationship between biologico-demographical, sociocultural, and environmental factors and the performance of physical activity in early childhood. Methodology: A systematic search was carried out of the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and LILACS, as well as Google Scholar, Open Grey, ClinicalTrials.gov, DARE, PROSPERO, Health Technology Assessment, and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, from their first records to June 2018. The selection criteria were previously defined with respect to population age and article theme. No meta-analyses were carried out due to the heterogeneity of the studies. Results: The percentage of moderate to vigorous physical activity runs between 3% and 47%. Environmental and sociocultural factors were identified as exerting a greater influence on children’s physical activity in early childhood, with the environmental factors being, according to almost all the study authors, the greater of the two. Conclusions: According to the studies included in this research project, the factors identified as associated with moderate to vigorous physical activity are environmental (play in open spaces) and sociocultural (the role of the family and the physical activity of the mother). The evidence is not strong enough to conclude that biologico-demographic factors are significantly influential in the physical activity at this age.

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Lauren T. Ptomey, Eric D. Vidoni, Esteban Montenegro-Montenegro, Michael A. Thompson, Joseph R. Sherman, Anna M. Gorczyca, Jerry L. Greene, Richard A. Washburn and Joseph E. Donnelly

Adults with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and their caregivers represent a segment of the population with low levels of moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA) and limited options for increasing MPA. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a group video conference approach for increasing MPA in adults with AD and their caregivers. Adults with AD and their caregivers attended 30-min group exercise sessions three times per week for 12 weeks. Exercise sessions and support sessions were delivered in their homes on a tablet computer over video conferencing software. Nine adults with AD/caregiver dyads enrolled, and seven completed the 12-week intervention. Adults with AD attended 77.3% of the group exercise sessions, and caregivers attended 79.2% of group exercise sessions. Weekly MPA increased in both adults with AD (49%) and caregivers (30%). Exercise delivered by group video conferencing is a feasible and potentially effective approach for increasing MPA in adults with AD and their caregivers.

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Nicole M. LaVoi, Jennifer E. McGarry and Leslee A. Fisher